Basics in linguistics phonology and morphology pdf
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- What is Morphology Fundamentals of Linguistics Second Edition
- The interface between morphology and phonology
- What is Linguistics?
- Introduction to the linguistic study of English
What is Morphology Fundamentals of Linguistics Second Edition
Language is the ability to produce and comprehend both spoken and written and in the case of sign language, signed words. Understanding how language works means reaching across many branches of psychology—everything from basic neurological functioning to high-level cognitive processing.
Language shapes our social interactions and brings order to our lives. Complex language is one of the defining factors that makes us human. Two of the concepts that make language unique are grammar and lexicon. Because all language obeys a set of combinatory rules, we can communicate an infinite number of concepts. While every language has a different set of rules, all languages do obey rules. These rules are known as grammar.
Every language has its rules, which act as a framework for meaningful communication. But what do people fill that framework up with? The answer is, of course, words. Every human language has a lexicon—the sum total of all of the words in that language. By using grammatical rules to combine words into logical sentences, humans can convey an infinite number of concepts. Language is such a special topic that there is an entire field, linguistics, devoted to its study.
Linguistics views language in an objective way, using the scientific method and rigorous research to form theories about how humans acquire, use, and sometimes abuse language.
There are a few major branches of linguistics, which it is useful to understand in order to learn about language from a psychological perspective. Major levels of linguistics : This diagram outlines the various subfields of linguistics, the study of language.
These include phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. Phonetics is the study of individual speech sounds; phonology is the study of phonemes, which are the speech sounds of an individual language. These two heavily overlapping subfields cover all the sounds that humans can make, as well as which sounds make up different languages.
Morphology is the study of words and other meaningful units of language like suffixes and prefixes. Syntax is the study of sentences and phrases, or how people put words into the right order so that they can communicate meaningfully. Semantics, most generally, is about the meaning of sentences.
Someone who studies semantics is interested in words and what real-world object or concept those words denote, or point to. Every language is different. But all languages have structural underpinnings that make them logical for the people who speak and understand them.
ASL and other sign languages have all the same structural underpinnings that spoken languages do. Five major components of the structure of language are phonemes, morphemes, lexemes, syntax, and context.
These pieces all work together to create meaningful communication among individuals. Major levels of linguistic structure : This diagram outlines the relationship between types of linguistic units. Speech sounds make up phonemes, which make up words.
Words make up sentences, which have literal meanings and contextual meanings. A phoneme is the basic unit of phonology. Phonemes correspond to the sounds of the alphabet, although there is not always a one-to-one relationship between a letter and a phoneme the sound made when you say the word.
The English language has approximately 45 different phonemes, which correspond to letters or combinations of letters. Through the process of segmentation, a phoneme can have a particular pronunciation in one word and a slightly different pronunciation in another.
Morphemes, the basic unit of morphology, are the smallest meaningful unit of language. Thus, a morpheme is a series of phonemes that has a special meaning. If a morpheme is altered in any way, the entire meaning of the word can be changed. These are known as free morphemes because they can exist on their own. Within the category of bound morphemes, there are two additional subtypes: derivational and inflectional.
Derivational morphemes change the meaning or part of speech of a word when they are used together. Lexemes are the set of inflected forms taken by a single word. Syntax is a set of rules for constructing full sentences out of words and phrases.
Every language has a different set of syntactic rules, but all languages have some form of syntax. In English, the smallest form of a sentence is a noun phrase which might just be a noun or a pronoun and a verb phrase which may be a single verb. Adjectives and adverbs can be added to the sentence to provide further meaning. Word order matters in English, although in some languages, order is of less importance.
Context is how everything within language works together to convey a particular meaning. Context includes tone of voice, body language, and the words being used.
Syntax is the study of sentences and phrases, and the rules of grammar that sentences obey. Semantics is the study of sentence meaning; pragmatics is the study of sentence meaning in context. Key Terms lexicon : The sum total of all words in a language. The Structure of Language All languages have underlying structural rules that make meaningful communication possible. Learning Objectives Explain the hierarchy of the building blocks of language.
Key Takeaways Key Points The five main components of language are phonemes, morphemes, lexemes, syntax, and context. Along with grammar, semantics, and pragmatics, these components work together to create meaningful communication among individuals. A morpheme is the smallest unit of a word that provides a specific meaning to a string of letters which is called a phoneme. There are two main types of morpheme: free morphemes and bound morphemes.
A lexeme is the set of all the inflected forms of a single word. Syntax is the set of rules by which a person constructs full sentences. Key Terms lexeme : The set of inflected forms taken by a single word. Licenses and Attributions.
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The interface between morphology and phonology
The morphological structure of a complex word determines how the constituent morphemes of a word are realized phonetically. The phonological structure of a complex word reflects its morphological structure, but is not isomorphic to that structure. Phonology plays a role in the selection of one from a set of competing affixes. This can be modelled in terms of phonological output conditions. Summary Questions Further reading
What is Linguistics?
Morphology is the study of words. Morphemes are the minimal units of words that have a meaning and cannot be subdivided further. There are two main types: free and bound. Free morphemes can occur alone and bound morphemes must occur with another morpheme.
Each human language is a complex of knowledge and abilities enabling speakers of the language to communicate with each other, to express ideas, hypotheses, emotions, desires, and all the other things that need expressing. Linguistics is the study of these knowledge systems in all their aspects: how is such a knowledge system structured, how is it acquired, how is it used in the production and comprehension of messages, how does it change over time? Linguists consequently are concerned with a number of particular questions about the nature of language.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics that studies how languages or dialects systematically organize their sounds or signs, in sign languages.
Introduction to the linguistic study of English
Phonology is the study of the patterns of sounds in a language and across languages. Put more formally, phonology is the study of the categorical organisation of speech sounds in languages; how speech sounds are organised in the mind and used to convey meaning. In this section of the website, we will describe the most common phonological processes and introduce the concepts of underlying representations for sounds versus what is actually produced, the surface form.