Personality and individual differences chamorro premuzic pdf
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- Individual Differences in Students' Preferences for Lecturers' Personalities
- Personality, assessment methods and academic performance
- Personality and Individual Differences
- Personality and Individual Differences
Individual Differences in Students' Preferences for Lecturers' Personalities
BPS Textbooks in Psychology BPS Blackwell presents a comprehensive and authoritative series covering everything a student needs in order to complete an undergraduate degree in psychology. Refreshingly written to consider more than North American research, this series is the first to give a truly international perspective.
Written by the very best names in the field, the series offers an extensive range of titles from introductory level through to final year optional modules, and every text fully complies with the BPS syllabus in the topic. No other series bears the BPS seal of approval! Each book is supported by a companion website , featuring additional resource materials for both instructors and students, designed to encourage critical thinking, and providing for all your course lecturing and testing needs.
For other titles in this series, please go to www. Personality and Individual Differences will make an indispensable addition to the library of students undergrad uate as well as postgraduate and researchers in the field of differential psychology. Petrides, London Psychometric Laboratory,. The chapters have been designed in a very student-friendly way to enhance critical thinking and understanding of key concepts, incorporating sound contemporary theories and evidence supported by rich examplesfrom everyday life and common experience.
A com prehensive book which makes a timely and important contribution to this field. Reprinted , All effort has been made to trace and acknowledge ownership of copyright.
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Personality and individual differences I Thomas Chamorro-Premuzic. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN pbk. C Set in 11Il2. To subscribe go to.
This book is dedicated to the Henry Ford of individual differences: Adrian Furnham. Human behavior is complex. Unlike fish or squirrels, we have a big repertoire of behavioral choices at any time. This makes behavior hard to predict. However, the science of individual differences has enabled us to understand how and why people o :.
Moreover, individual-differences research has produced valid theories to help us predict and understand human behavior. In this book, I have tried to summarize the main accomplishments and failures of this research. My hope is that this book will make you a passionate and skilled obser ver of human behavior, and that this is reflected in your course grade, too.
Although most people would endorse the belief that every individual is unique, explanations of human behavior, whether by psychologists, biologists, economists,. In fact, only a relatively small number of scientists, even amongst psychologists, have actually devoted their lives to explaining exactly how and why people are differ ent, whether and how we can.
Some progress has certainly been made, however. In the past years, differen tial psychologists have developed powerful theories of personality and intelligence, using sophisticated statistical methods to identify the major psychological sources underlying differences in learning, reasoning, emotionality, motivation, and creativity among other things between one person and another.
Explanations of what causes these differences remain controversial, particularly when biological factors i. Indeed, politicians, journalists, and educational and religious authorities alike seem more inclined at least in public to embrace the belief that "we are all the same," although if this really were apparent, it would probably not be necessary to repeat it so often.
The fact is that individual differences coexist with the ubiquitous human desire to compete with others, which, in turn, is protected by the need to feel superior to others. Thus, saying that two people are different somehow suggests that one is somehow superior e. In the end, judgment matters more than truth. Yet, ignoring the truth has rarely been the best remedy for irrationality. Finally, this book has been written with specific learning features to enhance its content and make it fully accessible.
Each chapter is organized around a series of key ideas, listed in the Chapter Outline at the start of each chapter. From chapter 2, key terms are highlighted in bold on their first significant occurrence in the text, accom panied by a short definition in the margin. Each chapter's key terms are listed at the start of the chapter, and all key terms and definitions are included in the Glossary at the end of the book.
At the end of each chapter, the Summary and Conclusions sec tion provides a clear list of bullet points reviewing the chapter's important themes. As well as a consolidated Bibliography at the end of the book, each chapter provides a short list of Key Readings for pursuing a particular area in more detail.
TCP, London. I am grateful for Julia Hawkins for her help with the 2nd edition of this textbook. Doctor Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic is a rising star of psychology and a worldwide expert in personality, intelligence, human performance, and psychometrics.
Doctor Tomas has published more than scientific articles and five books, cover ing a wide range of social and applied topics, such as interpersonal relationships and love, human intelligence and genius, consumer and media preferences, educational achievement, musical preferences, creativity, and leadership, and frequently appears in the media to provide psychological expertise to a wide audience. Doctor Tomas has been the resident psychologist in the past four seasons of Big Brother and held regular columns on the show.
He has lived in London for the past 10 years. It encompasses several nonobservable or "latent" constructs, such as intelligence and personality, which represent major sources of variation in behavior.
This makes individual differences a unique area in psychology. Whereas most psychological theories pretty much assume that every body is the same and hence attempt to identify the universal aspects of human behav ior, individual difference theories are concerned with. For example, cognitive psychologists may try to explain the processes underlying short-term memory, whereas intelligence researchers may explain why some people have better short-term memory than others Deary, Social psychologists may explain obedience to authority Milgram, , while personality theories may tell us why some people are more obedient than others Adorno.
Neuropsychologists may test whether recreational drugs, such as Ecstasy, have long-term effects on individuals' level of aggressiveness, whereas differential psychologists may investigate which individuals are more likely to use recreational drugs and why Zuckerman, PHOTO 1. That is the key question in individual differences research.
The goal of individual difference researchers, then, is to identify the most gen eral aspects underlying individuality and conceptualize a theoretical classification for predicting differences and similarities in human thought, emotionality, and behavior.
Throughout this chapter, I introduce the topic of individual differences from the perspective of real-life problems. In other words, I use a commonsense approach to explore the longstanding psychological questions that gave rise to the academic area of individual differences that is known as differential psychology. Although the bound aries of differential psychology are yet to be established, the label "individual differ ences" is normally used to refer to personality and intelligence.
Accordingly, half of this book is, in one way or another, dedicated to these variables see Chapters 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, and. Thus, this book also covers psychopathology or abnormal behavior Chapter 4 , motivation and mood states Chapter 9 , creativity Chapter 10 , leadership Chapter 11 , and interests Chapter An overview and basic description of the chapters is presented in Figure 1.
This implies that certain psychological differences, in the way people feel or think, lead to manifest differences in the way they act. This enables them to predict an individual's likelihood of behaving in one way or another. Take, for instance, the following examples. Chloe is 21 and loves partying. She has many friends and an active social life. She prefers the company of others to studying or reading, and is easily bored staying at home.
Laura, also 21, spends most weekends at home, reading and writing. She hates. She enjoys spending time with her family and a few close friends, but makes no effort to meet other people. Now, considering the infor mation you have about Chloe and Laura, try to answer the following questions:. Are they more similar to Chloe or Laura? There are several assumptions underlying the above examples.
First, we can see that individuals, even of the same age and gender, have different interests e. Second, these interests may determine the way they usually behave; that is, their choices of behavior across a range of situations. Thus, if Chloe loves going to parties, she will be more likely to go partying than if she hated parties as in Laura's case.
Third, and following on from the second point, we can see that an idea implicit in the above examples is that individuals are aware of what they like and dislike.
Not only are actors e. We are therefore faced with two perspectives for assessing differences in behavior; namely, self- and other observation. Last but not least, the examples suggest that people tend to act in a con sistent manner; that is, that there are specific patterns of behavior that are common or frequent in some individuals, but strange or infrequent in others. In brief, the above examples suggest that:. Different people may have different interests, values, and preferences.
People's interests, values, and preferences are reflected in their behaviors. People tend to act in a somewhat consistent manner across space and time see Figure 1. All of these assumptions are at the center of individual difference research, in par ticular theories of personality traits, which are the focus of Chapters 2 and 3.
Personality, assessment methods and academic performance
This study examines the relationship between personality and two different academic performance AP assessment methods, namely exams and coursework. It aimed to examine whether the relationship between traits and AP was consistent across self-reported versus documented exam results, two different assessment techniques and across different faculties. Participants completed a brief version of the Big Five inventory and a self-report measure of AP. Conscientiousness and Agreeableness were the strongest personality predictors of AP. Structural equation model showed that sex and personality effects on AP were invariant across different areas of study or degree types humanities, social sciences, life sciences and hard sciences. Personality variables are stable, robust and predictable correlates and determinants of AP.
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Personality and Individual Differences
Personality and Individual Differences
Journal of Individual Differences , 26, pp. This study examines the relationship between students' personality and intelligence scores with their preferences for the personality profile of their lecturers. Descriptive statistics showed that, overall, students tended to prefer conscientious, open, and stable lecturers, though correlations revealed that these preferences were largely a function of students' own personality traits. Thus, open students preferred open lecturers, while agreeable students preferred agreeable lecturers. There was evidence of a similarity effect for both Agreeableness and Openness. In addition, less intelligent students were more likely to prefer agreeable lecturers than their more intelligent counterparts were. A series of regressions showed that individual differences are particularly good predictors of preferences for agreeable lecturers, and modest, albeit significant, predictors of preferences for open and neurotic lecturers.
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A companion website containing additional teaching and learning resources can be found at stjamescsf.org
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Intelligence and personality have traditionally been studied as separate entities in psychology , but more recent work has increasingly challenged this view. An increasing number of studies have recently explored the relationship between intelligence and personality , in particular the Big Five personality traits. Historically, psychologists have drawn a hard distinction between intelligence and personality, arguing that intelligence is a cognitive trait while personality is non-cognitive. However, modern psychologists argue that intelligence and personality are intertwined, noting that personality traits tend to be related to specific cognitive patterns. For example, neuroticism is a personality trait that is related to rumination and compulsive thinking about possible threats. In considering the ties between intelligence and personality, it may be worth noting that they are typically not tested in the same way. Intelligence is assessed using ability tests such as I.
BPS Textbooks in Psychology BPS Blackwell presents a comprehensive and authoritative series covering everything a student needs in order to complete an undergraduate degree in psychology. Refreshingly written to consider more than North American research, this series is the first to give a truly international perspective. Written by the very best names in the field, the series offers an extensive range of titles from introductory level through to final year optional modules, and every text fully complies with the BPS syllabus in the topic. No other series bears the BPS seal of approval! Each book is supported by a companion website , featuring additional resource materials for both instructors and students, designed to encourage critical thinking, and providing for all your course lecturing and testing needs. For other titles in this series, please go to www.