Hafted weapons in medieval and renaissance europe pdf
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- Post Renaissance Architecture In Europe
- Flail (weapon)
- Hafted Weapons in Medieval and Renaissance Europe
A flail is a weapon consisting of a striking head attached to a handle by a flexible rope, strap, or chain. The chief tactical virtue of the flail was its capacity to strike around a defender's shield or parry. Its chief liability was a lack of precision and the difficulty of using it in close combat, or closely ranked formations. There are two broad types of flail: a long, two-handed infantry weapon with a cylindrical head, and a shorter weapon with a round metal striking head.
Post Renaissance Architecture In Europe
A flail is a weapon consisting of a striking head attached to a handle by a flexible rope, strap, or chain. The chief tactical virtue of the flail was its capacity to strike around a defender's shield or parry. Its chief liability was a lack of precision and the difficulty of using it in close combat, or closely ranked formations.
There are two broad types of flail: a long, two-handed infantry weapon with a cylindrical head, and a shorter weapon with a round metal striking head. The longer cylindrical-headed flail is a hand weapon derived from the agricultural tool of the same name , commonly used in threshing.
It was primarily considered a peasant's weapon, and while not common, they were deployed in Germany and Central Europe in the later Late Middle Ages.
In the Late Middle Ages , a particular type of flail appears in several works being used as a weapon, which consists of a very long shaft with a hinged, roughly cylindrical striking end. In most cases these are two-handed agricultural flails , which were sometimes employed as an improvised weapon by peasant armies conscripted into military service or engaged in popular uprisings. For example, in the — period, the Hussites fielded large numbers of peasant foot soldiers armed with this type of flail.
Some of these weapons featured anti-personnel studs or spikes embedded in the striking end, or are shown being used by armored knights,  suggesting they were made or at least modified specifically to be used as weapons. Such modified flails were used in the German Peasants' War in the early 16th century.
The other type of European flail is a shorter weapon consisting of a wooden haft connected by a chain, rope, or leather to one or more roughly spherical striking ends. Modern works variously refer to this particular weapon as a "military flail", " mace -and-chain" or "chain mace", and sometimes erroneously label them as simply a "mace" or morning star , terms which technically apply only to rigid weapons. Some historians refer to this weapon as a kettenmorgenstern "chain morning star" to distinguish it from the rigid weapon.
The haft is usually shown as approximately 1—4 feet long and the head can be a smooth metal sphere or a somewhat geometric shape, with some variants covered in spikes. The chain also varies, sometimes being no more than a few links to form a hinge, while others exceed the length of the haft and are several feet long. Despite being very common in fictional works such as cartoons, films and role-playing games as a "quintessential medieval weapon", historical information about this type of flail is somewhat scarce.
A few doubt they existed at all due to the number of pieces sitting in museums that turned out to be forgeries, as well as the unrealistic way they are depicted in art. This weapon had spread into central and eastern Europe in the 11th—13th centuries and may be considered an ancestor of the ball-and-chain flail. He states that the scarcity of artifacts and artistic depictions, combined with the almost complete lack of text references, suggests they were relatively rare weapons and never saw widespread use.
A missed swing would still retain momentum, causing the striking end to continue its arc around, potentially into the user's hand or body. In Asia, short flails originally employed in threshing rice were adapted into weapons such as the nunchaku or three-section staff. In China a very similar weapon to the long-handled peasant flail is known as the two-section staff , and Korea has a weapon called a pyeongon. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the long-handled flail is found in use in India.
An example held in the Pitt Rivers Museum has a wooden ball-shaped head studded with iron spikes. Another in the Royal Armouries collection has two spiked iron balls attached by separate chains.
Detail from The Travels of Marco Polo , circa , showing an armored "Mamluk" with a short, spiked flail tucked into his belt. Detail from The Travels of Marco Polo , circa , showing a horseman using a spiked flail with both hands to strike an adversary.
Illustration from Bellifortis showing a mounted knight with a short flail, circa From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the weapon.
For other uses, see Flail disambiguation. It has been suggested that Pyeongon be merged into this article. Discuss Proposed since November For the secret society, see Mace and Chain. Hayo van Wolvega attacks the tower of Damietta with a flail during the 5th crusade. Medieval Costume, Armour and Weapons. Courier Corporation. Retrieved Medieval military technology.
North York, Ont. Tonawanda, N. Y: University of Toronto Press. Paul B. Sturtevant May 12, The Public Medievalist. Medieval weapons an illustrated history of their impact. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Fasciculi Archaeologiae Historicae. XXI : 75— Hafted weapons in medieval and Renaissance Europe the evolution of European staff weapons between and Boston: Brill. Archived from the original on Categories : Formal insignia Flail weapons Medieval weapons.
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Hafted Weapons in Medieval and Renaissance Europe
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Free shipping for many products. Thank you for your patience. The development treated in this volume of a variety of staff weapons in the Medieval and Renaissance periods in Europe is of importance, as the repeated success of their use caused substantive political changes.
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