A companion to racial and ethnic studies pdf

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Race and Ethnicity in the Ancient World: Methods, Sources, and Assessments

Josef Raab. University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany. Todo lo que divide a los hombres, todo lo que especifica, aparta o acorrala es un pecado contra la humanidad.

He therefore proposes that the Youngers should sell the house to the Improvement Association rather than moving there while knowing that they are not welcome. The Youngers go through with the move nonetheless, and this is where the piece by the African American playwright Lorraine Hansberry ends and the piece by the Anglo-American playwright Bruce Norris starts. Expanding our view beyond the borders of the U. Difference matters, as we try to place a particular scenario or text into its wider, inter-American contexts in a process that may reveal parallel developments and similarities or opposite trends and disparities.

The individual dynamics of belonging e. In order to evade this national ist impulse, writes Kadir, we need. In the same way that we need to avoid homogenizing in the national context we also need to be mindful of difference in the larger, inter-American framework. Fittingly, Daniel Mato has warned against the conflation of ethnic and cultural identities in the age of globalization, exemplified through the creation of a pan-Latino identity:. Widening our focus to the inter-American contexts must not entail undue reductions and simplifications; difference matters in the narrow context and it multiplies in the larger framework.

Census Bureau. The comparison of the two Spanish-speaking groups whose experiences differed considerably further underlines that the invention of racial groups depends on social interaction with other groups and therefore on specific historical situations, an observation which clearly underscores the fluidity of collective identities.

A Puerto Rican and a Mexican American who find themselves in the same location at the same time may well establish a sense of shared belonging in one respect, while underscoring their difference from each other in another.

The play opens a few years into the Civil Rights Movement and it closes fifty years later, a year into the U. Blatant racism has turned into latent racism, as the characters in the part of the plot are at first all very cautious in terms of the politically correct language they use, intent on avoiding anything that might possibly offend members of another group. By the end of the play, half a century later, the house is to be torn down to make room for a new structure, signaling the beginning of yet another era, namely the gentrification of a formerly black neighborhood.

Showing the effects of neglect, decay, hooliganism, and graffiti in a run-down area, the property is again being sold—this time to a young white couple expecting a child. The buyers have to negotiate local construction regulations with a black couple representing the neighborhood Owners Association.

In other words, the more things change, the more they stay the same. Especially Russ is still embittered about how the neighborhood residents failed to support their son Kenneth when he came back traumatized from Korea. He partly blames the community for the suicide that took place in the upstairs part of the house they are now selling, and he is indifferent to the future of Clybourne Park. Karl Lindner, on the other hand, wants to preserve the all-white character of their residential area.

The Youngers, although they may have the money for a down payment, he is implying, could never fit in because of their skin color. Who shall we invite next, the Red Chinese? In Act II, set in —also on a Saturday afternoon, this time two days before the scheduled demolition of the house—, the lawyer Kathy, played by the same actress who had played Bev in Act I, reveals that underneath the veneer of politeness and respect she shares the veiled racism that we saw with Bev fifty years earlier.

He stammers:. Laughs nervously, to LENA. By the issue of… Sotto. Steve, nonetheless, continues his explicitness and antagonism, lecturing Lena on racialized competition:. This is why we have wars. One group, one tribe , tries to usurp some territory—and now you guys have this territory, right? We get it , okay?

And we apologise. But what good does it do, if we perpetually fall into the same, predictable little euphemistic tap dance around the topic? Every single word we say is—is—is scrutinised for some kind of latent—Meanwhile you guys run around saying N-word this and N-word that and whatever.

When he finally tells the joke about a white prisoner who is about to be raped by a black prisoner , a dead silence falls. Kathy follows suit, remarking that as the sister of a woman who was raped she, too, is horrified by the tasteless joke.

With these reactions Norris explores the ways in which multiple belonging and discrimination on the basis of gender or sexual orientation get interlaced with racism. Three white characters are offended by the joke told by a fourth white character about a white and a black prisoner—all for different reasons and all out of their own sense of belonging, which transcends whiteness. While the dynamics of inequality take on a different shape elsewhere in the Americas, they are often no less severe there.

An inter-American approach to the topic does not imply any kind of conflation or homogenization. Difference matters, and the differences between and within North America, the Caribbean, Central America, and South America have to be kept in mind. Clara E. Among the similarities she mentions:. First, both Americas have histories of indigenous conquest, slavery, and immigration.

Second, in both Americas, race has been constructed to reflect and support class and power relations. Each country in Latin America has developed its own racial constructions, but in all cases, they have tended to benefit those in power.

It is not surprising, therefore, that while the U. Historical parallels, the flow of goods, people, and ideas to, from, and within them, and participation in global exchanges and developments make the Americas an interconnected space, while their cultural and ethnic diversity, the role of indigenous peoples, and the geographic proximity of the so-called developed world to the so-called developing world account for the unique position of the Western Hemisphere on the globe.

As they touch each other and become superimposed, difference continues to matter since the result of interethnic and intercultural contact is not a uniform mass but a dynamic interaction—sometimes conflicting, sometimes hybrid. Do I contradict myself? Very well then I contradict myself, I am large, I contain multitudes. But usually ethno-racial difference also marks a difference in social class. Although the Spanish caste system and the enslavement of individuals of indigenous or African descent have been overcome, 11 the New World continues to be marked by difference and hierarchies.

Differences shade and shape the New World—sometimes with sharp contours between the individual colors, sometimes with the colors superimposed or mixing. These New World colors coexist and compete with each other, as communities assert their distinctiveness and as individuals feel a sense of belonging to multiple groups.

It was with and from the Atlantic commercial circuit that slavery became synonymous with blackness. This view becomes the basis for white 15 supremacy and other forms of inequality, which in turn determine political representation. Bauer explains that. Especially in the 21 st century, social and political movements have challenged old hierarchies and privileges in Latin America.

The election of Evo Morales to the presidency of Bolivia in as well as the victory of Barack Obama in the presidential races of the U. The Aymara Morales has declared himself the first fully indigenous head of state of Bolivia since its Spanish colonization—a contested statement because there have been previous Bolivian presidents who had partly indigenous ancestry.

He foregrounds his ethno-racial background as a basis for claims to resources and leadership and uses it as symbolic capital in the national and international competition for recognition and assets. While Morales emphasizes difference, foregrounding ethnicity and using it to demand changes in the distribution of resources, ownership, and capital, Obama—although astutely aware of difference—tries to unite his nation in the pursuit of common goals.

Figure 2: Official Portrait of Evo Morales. In contrast to this non-essentializing representation of Obama by the New Yorker , Evo Morales likes to stress his indigeneity in official portraits and public appearances. The depiction in figure 2 combines markers of indigeneity the knitted front of his coat with those of nation flag and sash and leadership decorations. By adding an ethnic component to the traditional invocations of nation and power in presidential portraits, Morales voices a counter-discourse against the earlier, non-indigenous power elites of Bolivia supported by and supportive of U.

Stressing his multiple belonging and redefining the nation, he underscores the indigenous basis of the nation and he proclaims that an indigenous ancestry is not incompatible with active participation in the nation and with the right to govern.

The nation, he is implying, rightfully belongs to the indigenous. While Obama has taken over for himself and his policies the idealistic doctrines of the U. Both presidents, however, use strategies of self-fashioning and ideas of multiple belonging in pursuing their political goals.

The contrary positions of Evo Morales and Barack Obama toward the logic of difference which ethnicity provides are by no means developments of the 21 st century. Issues of ethnic identity and communal belonging have concerned the Americas at least since the Conquest. For example, through their different approaches to national and inter-American issues, presidents Morales and Obama reveal stark differences in their ideas about nation and belonging.

With the de-territorialization of ethnic and cultural groups as a consequence of transnational ethnoscapes and mediascapes as well as multiple affiliations it becomes increasingly difficult to pin down difference. Difference remains, but it is articulated and lived in a complex web of belonging.

Because of the superimposition of identity markers, group identifications and coalitions keep shifting. He said:. Morales speaks of his biological as well as of his political birth and he is well aware of the variety of group identities to which he belongs: Aymara, indigenous, Bolivian, socialist etc.

But then he went on to include in the group for which he was speaking all anti-capitalists, envisioning a transnational kind of belonging with a political basis. When Evo Morales foregrounds ethnic, cultural, political, national difference, he does so with respect to a changing series of factors and positions. What exactly the distinctive marker of collective identity is, depends on the situation and issues at hand.

He asked provocatively:. Are not ethnic groups part of the historical process, tied to the history of modern nationalism? Though they may pretend to be eternal and essential, are they not of rather recent origin and eminently pliable and unstable? Invention xiv. Ethnicity, I would add, can become performative or can be used as a strategic resource in the competition for provisions, positions, prestige, or power.

In such claims and acts of self-positioning, ethnicity plays an increasingly central role in the Americas today—from the struggles for sovereignty of First Nations in Canada 21 to the claims by the U. But while the insistence on social and economic goods e. Most prominently, David A. In the postscript to his classic study, Postethnic America , Hollinger writes:. Identity is a code word for solidarity: to prescribe an identity for someone is to tell that person with whom they should be affiliating.

He concludes that. Such affiliations, designed to advance some common purpose, can be vital means of seeking political justice and providing individuals with a life-sustaining sense of belonging, but they need not be permanent, need not be exclusive of other affiliations, and need not carry the pernicious assumption that color and culture go together.

Barack Obama has likewise downplayed his belonging to a singular community of descent. I am the son of a black man from Kenya and a white woman from Kansas.

Race and medieval studies: a partial bibliography

What is the state of Race and Ethnic Studies today? How has the field emerged? What are the core concepts, debates and issues? A rigorous, focused examination of the central questions in the field today, the text examines:The roots of the field of race and ethnic studiesThe distinction between race and ethnicity Methodological issues facing researchersThe relationship between the field and more established disciplinesIntersections between race and ethnicity and questions sexuality, gender, nation and social transformationThe challenge of multiculturalismRace, ethnicity and globalizationRace and the familyRace and educationRace and religionIssues for the 21st Century. In putting together this Handbook of Race and Ethnic Studies we have seen our editorial role as twofold. First, we aimed to bring together authors who could write chapters that map out the field of race and ethnicity as an evolving, dynamic and relevant field of scholarly debate and research. In doing we have made choices both about the chapters to include in the handbook, as well as the selection of specific authors to write those chapters and our editorial feedback and suggestions to them.

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Race is inherently unstable. The absence of scholarship on race has delimited the potential of Classics, and moreover fettered its intellectual relevance and position in the modern academy. If race is not just one thing, then the methods used to approach it certainly cannot be either. The following bibliography aims to fill this gap in the discussion of race in antiquity, creating an accessible and coherent list of sources from various disciplines which seek to explicate some facet of race, racialization, and racism in the ancient world. The sources included were chosen for the example they provide of how one may conduct a research project regarding material as political and obscured as race, without sacrificing rigorous and tangible investigation. These sources also introduce frameworks that are innovative and compelling, and even when they do not directly address the ancient world, still provide powerful suggestions and tools for doing so.

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A Companion to Korean American Studies

The bibliography published in the following pages is the result of online collaboration and crowdsourcing of expertise. Over several months, many dozens of contributors have compiled these scholarly resources on the topics of race in the Middle Ages, race and medievalism, and race and racism in medieval studies. The spirit of the bibliography is anti-racist, critical, historical, and inclusive of minority perspectives. The version of the bibliography we print here is a snapshot, frozen in its ongoing development from crowdsourced suggestions, which have been made by contributors to a shared Google document, accessible here: goo. There are plans to migrate the bibliography to a more stable online location, at which point the new address will be available at the former web link.

Josef Raab. University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany.

Race and medieval studies: a partial bibliography

Беккер напряг зрение. Сомнений не. В ярком свете уличного фонаря на углу Беккер увидел. Молодые люди поднялись по ступенькам, и двигатель автобуса снова взревел. Беккер вдруг понял, что непроизвольно рванулся вперед, перед его глазами маячил только один образ - черная помада на губах, жуткие тени под глазами и эти волосы… заплетенные в три торчащие в разные стороны косички. Красную, белую и синюю.

 Такие перестановки - стандартный прием. Танкадо знал, что вы испробуете различные варианты, пока не наткнетесь на что-нибудь подходящее. NDAKOTA - слишком простое изменение. - Возможно, - сказал Стратмор, потом нацарапал несколько слов на бумажке и протянул ее Сьюзан.  - Взгляни-ка на .

Сьюзан снова завладели прежние сомнения: правильно ли они поступают, решив сохранить ключ и взломать Цифровую крепость. Ей было не по себе, хотя пока, можно сказать, им сопутствовала удача. Чудесным образом Северная Дакота обнаружился прямо под носом и теперь попал в западню. Правда, оставалась еще одна проблема - Дэвид до сих пор не нашел второй экземпляр ключа. Она молилась, чтобы его усилия увенчались успехом. Направляясь к центру Третьего узла, Сьюзан пыталась привести свои мысли в порядок. Странно, что она чувствует нервозность в такой знакомой ей обстановке.

[PDF] A Companion To Racial And Ethnic Studies The Wiley Blackwell Companion to Race, Ethnicity, and Nationalism-John Stone.