Measurement and evaluation in psychology and education pdf
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- Educational measurement
- Measurement and Evaluation in Psychology and Education, 8th Edition
- Measurement and evaluation in education and psychology
- Measurement and Educational Psychology
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As the goals of education have become more complex, and with the increasing demand by all parts of our citizenry for accountability on the part of educators, these tasks of measurement and evaluation have become more difficult. There has been increased criticism of the quality of our educational product. There are students who are unable to read, students who are unable to write effectively, students who lack a knowledge of the fundamental arithmetic processes, and students who cannot engage in higher-order thinking processes.
International studies indicate that U. All of these factors require us more than ever before to be concerned with valid and reliable measures of our educational products. Educational measurement and evaluation can, very broadly, be divided into two areas: the construction, evaluation, and use of 1 teacher-made classroom assessment procedures and 2 standardized tests.
This text covers both broad areas. In addition, it covers auxiliary topics related to the informed use of measurement. Measurement and Evaluation in Education and Psychology, Fourth Edition, can serve as the main text in the first course in measurement and evaluation at either the undergraduate or the graduate level.
The major focus of the text remains unchanged from the third edition. This is so, in part, because the previous editions have been well received by our students and colleagues.
Just as important, however, is the fact that the basic principles involved in the construction, selection, evaluation, interpretation, and use of tests have not changed radically since the first edition was published. Nevertheless, we have thoroughly updated the text. For example, we have added references dated through Further, this revision should not be construed as only an updating of the previous edition.
Changes have been made both in the organization and in the relative emphases of topics. And there have been, as one would expect, changes made with respect to those selections that hindsight reveals to be deserving of expansion, modification, or deletion.
The basic rationale behind this text is that educational decisions are continually being made. These decisions should be based on information that is accurate. The responsibility of gathering, using, and imparting that information belongs to educators. The contents of this book are based on the authors' conviction that there are certain knowledges, skills, and understandings for which classroom teachers and school counselors and administrators should be held accountable in order to meet the responsibilities listed above.
The selection of topics and the coverage given them have benefited from the advice of many colleagues. At all times, the needs of present and future educators have been kept foremost in mind. No formal course work in either testing or statistics is necessary to understand the text.
When we felt that the topic being presented could not be treated without some theoretical background, we attempted to present a simple but clear treatment of the theory. When we felt that the topic being discussed did not require theoretical treatment, we chose to omit the theory. The book is divided into five major parts. At the beginning of every chapter we present a set of objectives stated as general outcomes. Some teachers may prefer to develop more specific behavioral objectives to aid in instructional planning.
They are, of course, free to do so. In Unit 1 we have an introductory chapter in which we briefly discuss the relationship between information gathering and educational decision making and present a classification of the purposes of measurement and evaluation as well as an introduction to some of the current issues in measurement.
Chapter 2 covers norm- and criterion-referenced measurement. Unit 2 is on teacher-constructed measurement procedures. Chapter 3 considers the role of objectives in educational evaluation.
It covers the need for objectives and methods of determining and stating them. Chapter 4 is an overview of teacherconstructed tests. Chapter 5 is on essay test construction. Chapters 6 and 7 are on objective test construction. Chapter 8 discusses procedures for analyzing, evaluating, and revising teacher-constructed instruments.
Chapter 9 covers other teacher-constructed devices, with increased attention to performance assessment. Topics covered include rating scales, observational techniques, anecdotal records, and peer appraisal.
Numerous examples of both poor and good test items have been provided in this unit to help illustrate the various test-construction principles discussed. Unit 3 covers the interpretation of test scores. Chapter 10 covers methods of describing educational data. Chapter 11 previously Chapter 13 discusses norms, types of scores, and profiles.
Chapter 12 covers reliability, and Chapter 13, validity. Some readers of this text may wish to skip or only skim several sections of Chapter For example, the section "Reliability of Difference Scores" is more technical than the rest of the chapter, and understanding it is not necessary to comprehend the other material.
Unit 4 covers professionally constructed standardized measuring procedures. Chapter 14 presents an overview of standardized instruments. Chapters 15 through 17 cover aptitude, achievement, and noncognitive measures, respectively.
We have expanded our discussion of interest inventories and career assessment tools. That chapter, while thoroughly updated, is more similar in coverage to the second edition than the third edition.
Chapter 18 previously Chapter 21 covers assessing exceptionality. Some brief reviews and critiques of standardized tests and inventories are provided to familiarize potential test users with the diversity of tests available and the factors they must consider when selecting a test and using its results. At no time should it be considered that the tests reviewed are necessarily the best tests available-they are only exemplars.
In addition, the reader is not expected to remember the many specifics discussed. Why, then, one might ask, should we discuss them? We mention them to give the reader some acquaintance with the different kinds of standardized tests available and how they should be evaluated. We have tried to evaluate the various tests critically, pointing out their strengths and weaknesses, so that users will have some general notion as to what questions should be asked when they select tests: how they should interpret the information presented in the test manual regarding the test's psychometric problems, and what one test has to offer, if anything, over other available tests.
To derive maximum value from these brief test descriptions, we strongly urge the reader to have a specimen set of the test including the manual available. Finally, examples are provided to illustrate how test results can be used in making educational decisions.
Instructors stressing teacher-made tests might wish only to skim Unit 4. Instructors stressing standardized tests could skim Unit 2. Unit 5 includes four chapters: Chapter 19 previously in Unit 3 on factors influencing the measurement of individuals, Chapter 20 on marking and reporting, Chapter 21 on accountability and evaluation programs local, state, and national , and Chapter 22 on some public concerns and future trends in educational evaluation.
Finally, we appreciate the valuable assistance given in the production of this book by Jo-Anne Weaver, our Holt editor. We also wish to thank Chery Moran and Marj Oyer for extensive secretarial services and pleasant demeanor over successive revisions.
Ix We wish to thank George Denny for his library research and his many helpful suggestions. Finally, we wish to thank our wives, Beth and Ruth, for their unceasing support. It has provided fundamental and significant improvements over previous practices in industry, government, and education. It has provided a tool for broader and more equitable access to education and employment The proper use of well-constructed and validated tests provides a better basis for making some important decisions about individuals and programs than would otherwise be available.
Many people make hundreds of decisions daily; and to make wise decisions, one needs information. The role of measurement is to provide decision makers with accurate and relevant information.
Both ed- ucators and behavioral scientists have been concerned with measurement as a necessary component in both research and practical decision making. The whole field of differential psychology is based on the fact that individuals differ, that these differences are important, and that we need to measure these differences and use this information in decision making.
Employers, for example, are concerned with hiring, placing, and promoting the best people for the good of the organization and the welfare of the employees. Educators are concerned with measuring and evaluating the progress of their students, the value and relevance of the curriculum, and the effectiveness of instruction.
The most basic principle of this text is that measurement and evaluation are essential to sound educational decision making.
In this chapter we will 1 define some terms, 2 discuss the role of information in educational decision making, 3 present a classification of purposes of measurement and evaluation, and 4 present a brief overview of some of the more exciting issues to be covered in this book.
After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Define and differentiate the terms test, measurement, evaluation, and assessment. Recognize that measurement and evaluation are essential to sound decision making. Understand the components of a model of decision making. Classify the purposes of measurement and evaluation.
Recognize the ways measurement and evaluation can assist in instructional, guidance, administrative, and research decisions. Appreciate the variety of interesting issues in measurement and evaluation that will be covered in subsequent chapters. Understand several of the controversial issues at a basic level. Test is usually considered the narrowest of the four terms; it connotes the presentation of a standard set of questions to be answered.
As a result of a person's answers to such a series of questions, we obtain a measure of a characteristic of that person. Measurement often connotes a broader concept: We can measure characteristics in ways other than by giving tests.
Using observations, rat- ing scales, or any other device that allows us to obtain information in a quantitative form is measurement. Also, measurement can refer to both the score obtained and the process used.
Evaluation has been defined in a variety of ways.
Measurement and Evaluation in Psychology and Education, 8th Edition
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Measurement and evaluation in education and psychology
The Doctor of Philosophy Ph. It synthesizes interdisciplinary coursework, training, and fieldwork in order to answer the question of what works in schools—as well as how, under what conditions, and why. All EPME specialization experiences are focused on the comprehension and solution of problems using large datasets and real districts, schools, and classrooms as mechanisms for learning. In keeping with the mission of the CEHD and the commitment of the University of Louisville as a whole, activities will, whenever possible, be designed to engage students with issues affecting urban, minority, and at-risk populations in the surrounding community and the nation.
This content was uploaded by our users and we assume good faith they have the permission to share this book. If you own the copyright to this book and it is wrongfully on our website, we offer a simple DMCA procedure to remove your content from our site. Start by pressing the button below! Measurement and evaluation in education and psychology Home Measurement and evaluation in education and psychology. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Measurement and Educational Psychology
Citation: Huitt, W. Science: A way of knowing. Educational Psychology Interactive. Having a true or correct view of the universe, how it works, and how we as human beings are influenced by our nature and our surroundings are important goals for educators. In general, there are four ways or methods by which truth about phenomena can be ascertained. First, we can know something is true because we trust the source of the information.
Educational measurement refers to the use of educational assessments and the analysis of data such as scores obtained from educational assessments to infer the abilities and proficiencies of students. The approaches overlap with those in psychometrics. Educational measurement is the assigning of numerals to traits such as achievement, interest, attitudes, aptitudes, intelligence and performance. The aim of theory and practice in educational measurement is typically to measure abilities and levels of attainment by students in areas such as reading, writing, mathematics, science and so forth.
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N.J.: Princeton University Press, Robert L. Thorndike and Elizabeth. P. Hagen. Measurement and Evaluation in Psychology and Education. 4th ed.