List of mental disorders and their symptoms pdf
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Mental Health Disorders in Adolescents
He wanted to know how common it was to have more than one diagnosis, so he got his hands on a database containing the medical details of around 5. He was taken aback by what he found. Every single mental disorder predisposed the patient to every other mental disorder — no matter how distinct the symptoms 1. The study tackles a fundamental question that has bothered researchers for more than a century.
What are the roots of mental illness? In the hope of finding an answer, scientists have piled up an enormous amount of data over the past decade, through studies of genes, brain activity and neuroanatomy. Researchers are also drastically rethinking theories of how our brains go wrong. Now, researchers are trying to understand the biology that underlies this spectrum of psychopathology. They have a few theories.
Perhaps there are several dimensions of mental illness — so, depending on how a person scores on each dimension, they might be more prone to some disorders than to others. An alternative, more radical idea is that there is a single factor that makes people prone to mental illness in general: which disorder they develop is then determined by other factors. Both ideas are being taken seriously, although the concept of multiple dimensions is more widely accepted by researchers.
The details are still fuzzy, but most psychiatrists agree that one thing is clear: the old system of categorizing mental disorders into neat boxes does not work. They are also hopeful that, in the long run, replacing this framework with one that is grounded in biology will lead to new drugs and treatments.
Researchers aim to reveal, for instance, the key genes, brain regions and neurological processes involved in psychopathology, and target them with therapies. The most immediate challenge is working out how to diagnose people. Since the s, psychiatrists have used an exhaustive volume called the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , currently in its fifth edition.
It lists all the recognized disorders, from autism and obsessive—compulsive disorder to depression, anxiety and schizophrenia. Each is defined by symptoms. The inherent assumption is that each disorder is distinct, and arises for different reasons.
However, even before the DSM-5 was published in , many researchers argued that this approach was flawed. Few patients fit into each neat set of criteria.
Instead, people often have a mix of symptoms from different disorders. Even if someone has a fairly clear diagnosis of depression, they often have symptoms of another disorder such as anxiety. This implies that the way clinicians have partitioned mental disorders is wrong. Psychiatrists have tried to solve this by splitting disorders into ever-finer subtypes.
But the problem persists — the subtypes are still a poor reflection of the clusters of symptoms that many patients have. Beginning in , it began demanding more studies of the biological basis of disorders, instead of their symptoms, under a programme called the Research Domain Criteria.
There has since been an explosion of research into the biological basis of psychopathology , with studies focusing on genetics and neuroanatomy, among other fields. But if researchers hoped to demystify psychopathology, they still have a long way to go: the key finding has been just how complex psychopathology really is.
Clinically, the evidence that symptoms cut across disorders — or that people frequently have more than one disorder — has only grown stronger.
Even seemingly separate disorders are linked. But she and her team found that traits for autism and ADHD were strongly correlated, and partially under genetic control 2. Furthermore, there seem to be clusters of symptoms that cross the boundaries of disorders. A study 3 examined people who had been diagnosed with either major depression, panic disorder or post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD.
The volunteers were assessed on the basis of their symptoms, cognitive performance and brain activity. The groups cut across the three diagnostic categories as if they were not there. Many now agree that the diagnostic categories are wrong.
The question is, with biology as their guide, what should psychiatric diagnosis and treatment look like instead? Each trait determines our susceptibility to certain kinds of disorder. For example, someone might be prone to mood disorders such as anxiety, but not to thought disorders such as schizophrenia.
This is similar to the way psychologists think about personality. In one model, five personality traits, such as conscientiousness and neuroticism, describe most of the variation in human personalities.
Some psychiatrists are already trying to reimagine their discipline with dimensions in mind. However, other catalogues of disorders have shifted towards dimensionality. In , the World Health Assembly endorsed the latest International Classification of Diseases called ICD , in which some psychopathologies were newly broken down using dimensional symptoms rather than categories.
The challenge for the dimensionality hypothesis is obvious: how many dimensions are there, and what are they? One popular theory 4 , supported by many studies over the past decade, argues for just two dimensions.
If someone has been diagnosed with two or more disorders, studies suggest these are likely to be from the same category. But studies combining large amounts of brain-imaging data with machine learning have turned up different numbers — even in studies done by the same lab. Last year, Satterthwaite and his group published a study 5 of 1, young people who had internalizing symptoms, and found they could be split into two groups on the basis of their brain structure and function.
In , Satterthwaite led a similar study 6 and identified four dimensions, each associated with a distinct pattern of brain connectivity.
Some teams study the strength of connections between brain regions to work out whether brain function correlates with particular diagnoses. Ultimately, a future version of the DSM could have chapters devoted to each dimension, says Hyman.
These could list the disorders that cluster within each, as well as their symptoms and any biomarkers derived from the underlying physiology and genetics. Two people who had similar symptoms but different sets of mutations or neuroanatomical alterations could then be diagnosed and treated differently.
One pillar of this future approach is a better understanding of the genetics of mental illness. In the past decade, studies of psychopathological genetics have become large enough to draw robust conclusions. The studies reveal that no individual gene contributes much to the risk of a psychopathology; instead, hundreds of genes each have a small effect.
A study 7 found that thousands of gene variants were risk factors for schizophrenia. Many were also associated with bipolar disorder, suggesting that some genes contribute to both disorders. This is not to say that the same genes are involved in all brain disorders: far from it.
These studies all looked at common variants, which are the easiest to detect. Some recent studies focused instead on extremely rare variants, which do suggest genetic differences between disorders. A study of more than 12, people 9 found that individuals with schizophrenia had an unusually high rate of ultra-rare mutations — and that these were often unique to one individual. The result is a mess. It is difficult to predict which risk factors cut across conditions.
Some psychiatrists have put forward a radical hypothesis that they hope will allow them to make sense of the chaos. If disorders share symptoms, or co-occur, and if many genes are implicated in multiple disorders, then maybe there is a single factor that predisposes people to psychopathology.
The idea was first proposed in by public-health specialist Benjamin Lahey at the University of Chicago in Illinois Lahey and his colleagues studied symptoms in 11 disorders. The model worked better if the general factor was included.
The following year, the hypothesis received more support — and a catchy name — from husband-and-wife psychologists Avshalom Caspi and Terrie Moffitt at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina.
They used data from a long-term study of 1, people and found that most of the variation in symptoms could be explained by a single factor Since , multiple studies have replicated their core finding. Caspi and Moffitt were clear that the p factor could not explain everything, and made no guesses about its underlying biology, speculating only that a set of genes might mediate it. Others have proposed that the p factor is a general predisposition to psychopathology, but that other factors — stressful experiences, or other gene alterations — nudge a person towards different symptoms But if it is real, it has a startling implication: there could be a single therapeutic target for psychiatric disorders.
There are already hints that generalized treatments could work just as well as targeted therapies. A study 13 randomly assigned people with anxiety disorders, such as panic disorder or obsessive—compulsive disorder, to receive either a therapy for their specific disorder or a generalized approach.
Both therapies worked equally well. Finding a physiological basis for the p factor would be the first step towards therapies based on it, but only in the past few years have researchers found hints of it in genetic and neuroanatomical data. Meanwhile, other groups have searched for a neuroanatomical change that occurs in multiple psychopathologies.
The results are intriguing, but contradictory. But subsequent studies by Adrienne Romer, a clinical psychologist now at Harvard Medical School and McLean Hospital in Belmont, Massachusetts, identified a totally different trio of regions with roles that include managing basic bodily functions and movement 16 — the pons, cerebellum and part of the cortex. Romer and Satterthwaite have independently found disruptions in executive function in a range of psychopathologies 17 , 18 — the suspicion being that these disruptions could underlie the p factor.
Most scientists agree that what is needed is more data, and many remain unconvinced by such simple explanations. At the genetic level at least, he says, there are many disorders, such as PTSD and generalized anxiety disorder, that remain poorly understood.
All such sweeping hypotheses are premature, says Hyman. Plana-Ripoll, O. JAMA Psychiatry 76 , — Ronald, A. Child Psychol.
Children's Mental Disorders
The Public Health Agency of Canada defines mental illnesses as alterations in thinking, mood or behaviour associated with significant distress and impaired functioning. They result from complex interactions of biological, psychosocial, economic and genetic factors. There are many different types of mental illnesses, and they can range from single, short-lived episodes to chronic disorders. It would be impossible to cover all types in this checklist document. As such, the checklists will focus on anxiety disorders, mood disorders including major depression and bipolar disorder, substance related disorders, and psychotic disorders with the intent to help recognition of self and others. Each person is different and will have unique signs and symptoms, but these are some of the more common signs and symptoms for each mental health problem. Anxiety disorders are characterized by excessive and persistent feelings of nervousness, anxiety, and even fear which interfere with an individual's everyday life for an extended period of time.
Mental disorders are patterns of behavioral or psychological symptoms that impact multiple areas of life. These disorders create distress for the person experiencing these symptoms. Neurodevelopmental disorders are those that are typically diagnosed during infancy, childhood, or adolescence. These psychological disorders include:. Adaptive behaviors are those that involve practical, everyday skills such as self-care, social interaction, and living skills.
included in the list of principal investigators on pages their names are who are concerned with caring for the mentally ill and their families, worldwide. symptoms, diagnostic criteria, and the system adopted by WHO for describing.
Types of mental illness
Read terms. Brookman, MD. Obstetrician—gynecologists who see adolescent patients are highly likely to see adolescents and young women who have one or more mental health disorders.
Error: This is required. Error: Not a valid value. This is a handbook used by health professionals to help identify and diagnose mental illness. The diagnosis of mental illness can be controversial.
NCBI Bookshelf. This guideline is concerned with the care and treatment of people with a common mental health disorder, including depression, generalised anxiety disorder GAD , panic disorder, phobias, social anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder OCD and post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD. It makes recommendations about the delivery of effective identification, assessment and referral for treatment in primary care. The guideline will also be applicable to secondary care, and relevant but does not make specific recommendations for the prison service and non-NHS services such as social services, and the voluntary and independent sectors. A particular purpose of this guideline is to integrate existing NICE guidance on the identification and assessment of common mental health disorders and to provide recommendations to support the development of local care pathways for these disorders.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM is the American Psychiatric Association 's standard reference for psychiatry , which includes over different definitions of mental disorders. This list contains conditions which are currently recognised as mental disorders as defined by these two systems.
Mental disorders or mental illnesses are conditions that affect your thinking, feeling, mood, and behavior. They may be occasional or long-lasting chronic. They can affect your ability to relate to others and function each day. There is no single cause for mental illness. A number of factors can contribute to risk for mental illness, such as. Mental disorders are not caused by character flaws. They have nothing to do with being lazy or weak.
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