Iron and steel production process pdf
File Name: iron and steel production process .zip
Various chemical reactions are initiated, either in sequence or simultaneously, in order to arrive at specified chemical compositions and temperatures. Indeed, many of the reactions interfere with one another, requiring the use of process models to help in analyzing options, optimizing competing reactions, and designing efficient commercial practices. The major iron-bearing raw materials for steelmaking are blast-furnace iron , steel scrap, and direct-reduced iron DRI. Liquid blast-furnace iron typically contains 3. The phosphorus content depends on the ore used, since phosphorus is not removed in the blast-furnace process, whereas sulfur is usually picked up during iron making from coke and other fuels. It frequently contains about 3 percent unreduced iron ore and 4 percent gangue, depending on the ore used. It is normally shipped in briquettes and charged into the steelmaking furnace like scrap.
In steelmaking, impurities such as nitrogen , silicon , phosphorus , sulfur and excess carbon most important impurity are removed from the sourced iron, and alloying elements such as manganese , nickel , chromium , carbon and vanadium are added to produce different grades of steel. Limiting dissolved gases such as nitrogen and oxygen and entrained impurities termed "inclusions" in the steel is also important to ensure the quality of the products cast from the liquid steel. Steelmaking has existed for millennia, but it was not commercialized on a massive scale until the late 14th century. An ancient process of steelmaking was the crucible process. In the s and s, the Bessemer process and the Siemens-Martin process turned steelmaking into a heavy industry. Today there are two major commercial processes for making steel, namely basic oxygen steelmaking , which has liquid pig-iron from the blast furnace and scrap steel as the main feed materials, and electric arc furnace EAF steelmaking, which uses scrap steel or direct reduced iron DRI as the main feed materials. In recent times, EAF steelmaking technology has evolved closer to oxygen steelmaking as more chemical energy is introduced into the process.
The refining of iron to make steel is where the carbon content of hot metal is lowered, usually to less than 1 % by an oxidation process in a steelmaking furnace.
production of iron and steel pdf
Steel production is a hour-a-day, day-a-year process, dependent on a consistent supply of raw materials and huge amounts of energy. High demand for iron ore, coke and scrap steel, increasing energy costs, and industry consolidation have prompted steel producers to develop new methods for gaining efficiency to remain competitive. The production methods using raw materials have improved significantly over the past decade, and scrap-based production is accounting for a larger portion of the total steel supply.
A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical furnace used for smelting to produce industrial metals, generally pig iron , but also others such as lead or copper. Blast refers to the combustion air being "forced" or supplied above atmospheric pressure. In a blast furnace, fuel coke , ores , and flux limestone are continuously supplied through the top of the furnace, while a hot blast of air sometimes with oxygen enrichment is blown into the lower section of the furnace through a series of pipes called tuyeres , so that the chemical reactions take place throughout the furnace as the material falls downward.
Download: Safety and health in the iron and steel industry pdf - 0. The first two chapters deal with the objectives and application of the code. The next two chapters address, within a national framework, the responsibilities, duties and rights of the competent authority, the labour inspectorate, employers, workers and their organizations, suppliers, manufacturers and designers, and contractors, and occupational safety and health OSH management systems and services and OSH reporting. Part II of the code addresses different operations commonly used in the production of iron and steel — from coke ovens to steel furnaces and foundries, to rolling mills, coating lines and recycling.
The blast furnace is the first step in producing steel from iron oxides. The first blast furnaces appeared in the 14th century and produced one ton per day. Even though equipment is improved and higher production rates can be achieved, the processes inside the blast furnace remain the same.