Attitude and its types pdf

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attitude and its types pdf

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In psychology, an attitude refers to a set of emotions, beliefs, and behaviors toward a particular object, person, thing, or event. Attitudes are often the result of experience or upbringing, and they can have a powerful influence over behavior.

3 Types of Attitudes Perfectly Explained from Start to Finish

By Dr. Saul McLeod updated One of the underlying assumptions about the link between attitudes and behavior is that of consistency. This means that we often or usually expect the behavior of a person to be consistent with the attitudes that they hold.

This is called the principle of consistency. Whilst this principle may be a sound one, it is clear that people do not always follow it, sometimes behaving in seemingly quite illogical ways; for example, smoking cigarettes and knowing that smoking causes lung cancer and heart disease. There is evidence that the cognitive and affective components of behavior do not always match with behavior. This is shown in a study by LaPiere The strength with which an attitude is held is often a good predictor of behavior.

The stronger the attitude the more likely it should affect behavior. Attitude strength involves:. If an attitude has a high self-interest for a person i. As a consequence, the attitude will have a very strong influence upon a person's behavior. By contrast, an attitude will not be important to a person if it does not relate in any way to their life.

The knowledge aspect of attitude strength covers how much a person knows about the attitude object. People are generally more knowledgeable about topics that interest them and are likely to hold strong attitudes positive or negative as a consequence.

Attitudes based on direct experience are more strongly held and influence behavior more than attitudes formed indirectly for example, through hear-say, reading or watching television. Attitudes can serve functions for the individual. Daniel Katz outlines four functional areas:. Attitudes provide meaning knowledge for life.

The knowledge function refers to our need for a world which is consistent and relatively stable. This allows us to predict what is likely to happen, and so gives us a sense of control. Attitudes can help us organize and structure our experience. For example, knowing that a person is religious we can predict they will go to Church.

The attitudes we express 1 help communicate who we are and 2 may make us feel good because we have asserted our identity. Self-expression of attitudes can be non-verbal too: think bumper sticker, cap, or T-shirt slogan.

Therefore, our attitudes are part of our identify, and help us to be aware through the expression of our feelings, beliefs and values. For example, when people flatter their bosses or instructors and believe it or keep silent if they think an attitude is unpopular.

Again, expression can be nonverbal [think politician kissing baby]. Attitudes then, are to do with being apart of a social group and the adaptive functions helps us fit in with a social group.

People seek out others who share their attitudes, and develop similar attitudes to those they like. The ego-defensive function refers to holding attitudes that protect our self-esteem or that justify actions that make us feel guilty. For example, one way children might defend themselves against the feelings of humiliation they have experienced in P. This function has psychiatric overtones. Positive attitudes towards ourselves, for example, have a protective function i. The basic idea behind the functional approach is that attitudes help a person to mediate between their own inner needs expression, defense and the outside world adaptive and knowledge.

McLeod, S. Attitudes and behavior. Simply Psychology. Eagly, A. The psychology of attitudes. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers. Hogg, M. Social Psychology 4th edition. London: Prentice-Hall. LaPiere, R. Attitudes vs. Social Forces , 13, Toggle navigation. B ehavioral or conative component: the way the attitude we have influences on how we act or behave. This model is known as the ABC model of attitudes. Download this article as a PDF.

How to reference this article: How to reference this article: McLeod, S. Back to top.

Attitude: Nature, Components and Formation

In psychology , attitude is a psychological construct, a mental and emotional entity that inheres in, or characterizes a person. It is an individual's predisposed state of mind regarding a value and it is precipitated through a responsive expression towards oneself, [2] a person, place, thing, or event the attitude object which in turn influences the individual's thought and action. Prominent psychologist Gordon Allport described this latent psychological construct as "the most distinctive and indispensable concept in contemporary social psychology. An attitude is an evaluation of an attitude object, ranging from extremely negative to extremely positive. Most contemporary perspectives on attitudes permit that people can also be conflicted or ambivalent toward an object by simultaneously holding both positive and negative attitudes toward the same object. This has led to some discussion of whether the individual can hold multiple attitudes toward the same object. An attitude can be a positive or negative evaluation of people, objects, events, activities, and ideas.

Attitudes and Behavior

One's attitude reflects how one thinks, feels, and behaves in a given situation. Attitude can be defined as our response to people, places, things, or events in life. Our attitude towards people, places, things, or situations determines the choices that we make. Basically, the cognitive component is based on the information or knowledge, whereas affective component is based on the feelings.

Attitudes can be positive or negative. Both Attitudes and Values are the beliefs views of a person. Take a Free Test.


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