Colloid and surface chemistry pdf
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- Applied Colloid and Surface Chemistry
- High Polymer, Colloid and Surface Chemistry
- Principles-of-Colloid-and-Surface-Chemistry (1).pdf
- Colloid and Surface Chemistry, Volume 12
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Applied Colloid and Surface Chemistry
Gewers, C. Although emulsions have always been a problem for the petroleum industry, the producing of heavy crude oil can be further complicated by the presence of colloidal clays and asphaltenes which create a new type of emulsion. This phenomenon became apparent recently in the " Hot Water Process" for extracting bitumen from the Athabasca Tar Sands.
The clays form membranous skins at the oil water interface which do not respond to conventional emulsion- breaking procedures. Caustic pH ranges, polyphosphates and other dispersing agents, rather than cationic flocculating, should be used to overcome this problem.
Asphaltenes are colloidal crude oil constituents which also have the ability to form skins at the oil-water interface. These skins stabilize water in oil emulsions which do respond to conventional emulsion-breaking procedures. The asphaltenes contain very strongly polar chemical compounds, thus emulsion treating requires relatively high concentrations of expensive chemicals.
A pH adjustment can reduce these requirements. Our Alberta heavy oils contain approximately 20 per cent asphaltenes, which, therefore, constitute a potential problem. The resinous acids in our heavy oils form another group of surface-active compounds. They stabilize water in oil emulsions, which can be broken more easily by conventional means. One other aspect of the resinous acids is their ability to form water-soluble soaps in the presence of caustic.
Theoretically, these soaps could promote improved oil recovery. However, most of our heavy oil reservoirs contain clays which adsorb caustic and prevent this soap formation. The benefits observed due to caustic injection are believed to be due to the dispersion of the clays rather than the formation of soaps.
Sign In or Register. Advanced Search. Sign In. Skip Nav Destination Article Navigation. Close mobile search navigation Article navigation. Volume 7, Issue Previous Article. Article Navigation. April 01 Gewers C. This Site. Google Scholar. J Can Pet Technol 7 02 : 85— Article history Received:.
High Polymer, Colloid and Surface Chemistry
Gewers, C. Although emulsions have always been a problem for the petroleum industry, the producing of heavy crude oil can be further complicated by the presence of colloidal clays and asphaltenes which create a new type of emulsion. This phenomenon became apparent recently in the " Hot Water Process" for extracting bitumen from the Athabasca Tar Sands. The clays form membranous skins at the oil water interface which do not respond to conventional emulsion- breaking procedures. Caustic pH ranges, polyphosphates and other dispersing agents, rather than cationic flocculating, should be used to overcome this problem. Asphaltenes are colloidal crude oil constituents which also have the ability to form skins at the oil-water interface.
Chapter headings. Selected papers. Introduction to the thermodynamics of the discontinuity surface in a single component system. The surface energy and intermolecular interactions in condensed phases. The Adsorption Phenomena.
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More information about tuition fees. Colloid and Surface Chemistry is an advanced course that provides you with an in-depth understanding of the physicochemical mechanisms that govern nanoscopic and microscopic particles. You will learn about particle dispersions, surfactant and polymer solutions, emulsions and foams, as well as about the phenomena of micelle formation, surface tension, diffusion, electrophoresis, and light scattering. Colloids contain small particles ranging in size from a few nanometers up to about one micrometer, very often dispersed in a liquid. A characteristic feature of colloids is that the interfacial area between the particles and the surrounding liquid always becomes very large, which means that the chemistry that occurs at or near this interface becomes decisive for the properties of colloids.
As part of these celebrations, we are offering free access to the virtual issue of PAC: 60 seminal papers published in PAC over the past 60 years. Pure and Applied Chemistry is the official monthly Journal of IUPAC, with responsibility for publishing works arising from those international scientific events and projects that are sponsored and undertaken by the Union. The policy is to publish highly topical and credible works at the forefront of all aspects of pure and applied chemistry, and the attendant goal is to promote widespread acceptance of the Journal as an authoritative and indispensable holding in academic and institutional libraries. EN English Deutsch.
Colloid and Surface Chemistry, Volume 12
Colloid and surface chemistry is a subject of immense importance and has implications both to our everyday life and to numerous industrial sectors from paints and materials to medicine and biotechnology. When we observe nature, we are impressed by mosquitos and other small insects that can walk on water but are drawn into the water when detergents soaps are added in their neighbourhood. We are fascinated by the spherical shape of water and even more by the mercury droplets that can roll around without wetting anything. We know that for the same reasons we should use plastic raincoats when it is raining.
This thoroughly updated edition continues to provide a concise overall coverage of colloid and surface chemistry, intermediate between the brief accounts in physical chemistry textbooks and the comprehensive coverage in specialized treatises. New information is included on the composition and structure of solid surfaces, dynamic light scattering, micro emulsions and colloid stability control. The book provides a sound, but easy to follow theoretical framework.
- Он пожал плечами. - Ладно, - нахмурилась Сьюзан. - Попробуем еще… Кухня. - Спальня, - без колебаний отозвался. Сьюзан смутилась.
Скорее всего Хейл держит там копию ключа. Она мне нужна. Сьюзан даже вздрогнула от неожиданности. - Вам нужен ключ. Я поняла так, что весь смысл в том, чтобы его уничтожить.
Пользователь имел возможность создать любую гипотетическую ситуацию, и Мозговой штурм предсказывал, как эта ситуация повлияет на среду. Коммандер относился к этой программе с религиозным трепетом, но использовал ее не в политических целях: она служила ему для расчета времени, оценки информации и схематического отображения ситуации, выработки сложных стратегических решений и своевременного выявления слабых мест. Сьюзан не оставляло подозрение, что в компьютере шефа кроется нечто, чему в один прекрасный день суждено изменить весь мир. Да, я была с ним слишком сурова, - подумала Сьюзан. Ее мысли были прерваны внезапным звуковым сигналом входной двери Третьего узла. Стратмор чуть ли не вбежал в комнату. - Сьюзан, - сказал он, - только что позвонил Дэвид.
Пожилой человек вдруг поднялся и куда-то побежал, видимо, вызвать скорую.