# Diffraction from single and double slits pdf

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Diffraction refers to various phenomena that occur when a wave encounters an obstacle or opening. Unsubscribe from Pankaj Physics Gulati? In optics, Fraunhofer diffraction named after Joseph von Fraunhofer , or far-field diffraction, is a form of wave diffraction that occurs when field waves are passed through an aperture or slit causing only the size of an observed aperture image to change due to the far-field location of observation and the increasingly planar nature of outgoing diffracted waves passing through the aperture. It is a product of the interference pattern of waves from separate slits and the diffraction of waves from within one slit. Fraunhofer diffraction pattern for a slit 2b In this case, the problem is a single Fourier transform in x , rather than two of them in x and y : exp jk Ex xx Aperturexdx z The aperture function is simple: 1 1 1 0otherwise bx b Aperture x How very satisfying!

## Single and Double Slit Comparison

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We assumed that the slits were so narrow that on the screen you saw only the interference of light from just two point sources. If the slit is smaller than the wavelength, then Figure 4. Therefore, it was reasonable to leave out the diffraction effect in that chapter. However, if you make the slit wider, Figure 4. In this section, we study the complications to the double-slit experiment that arise when you also need to take into account the diffraction effect of each slit. To calculate the diffraction pattern for two or any number of slits, we need to generalize the method we just used for a single slit.

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## Single and Double Slit Comparison

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The light diffracted by a grating is found by summing the light diffracted from each of the elements, and is essentially a convolution of diffraction and interference patterns. When looking at a cross section of a beam of light, the length over which the phase is correlated is called the transverse coherence length. The simplest descriptions of diffraction are those in which the situation can be reduced to a two-dimensional problem. Graph and image of single-slit diffraction. Bragg diffraction is a consequence of interference between waves reflecting from different crystal planes.

## Diffraction at a double slit and multiple slits

Theory : Light is made incident on arrangement of double slit. The intensity distribution on the screen is the combined effect of interference of diffracted secondary waves from the slits. The diffracted intensity on the screen is very large along the direction of incident beam [i. This is known as principal maximum of zero order.

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The waves from light sources must be coherent with each other. This means that they must be of the same frequency, with a constant phase difference between them. The amplitude maximum displacement of interfering waves must have the same magnitude.

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