Skin hair and nails structure and function pdf

Posted on Monday, May 17, 2021 3:57:10 AM Posted by Luce L. - 17.05.2021 and pdf, the pdf 0 Comments

skin hair and nails structure and function pdf

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The integumentary system is the set of organs forming the outermost layer of an animal's body. It comprises the skin and its appendages, acting as a physical barrier between the external environment and the internal environment that it serves to protect and maintain. The integumentary system includes hair , scales , feathers , hooves , and nails.

Integumentary system

Accessory structures of the skin include hair, nails, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands. These structures embryologically originate from the epidermis and can extend down through the dermis into the hypodermis. It is primarily made of dead, keratinized cells. Just as the basal layer of the epidermis forms the layers of epidermis that get pushed to the surface as the dead skin on the surface sheds, the basal cells of the hair bulb divide and push cells outward in the hair root and shaft as the hair grows. Hair texture straight, curly is determined by the shape and structure of the cortex, and to the extent that it is present, the medulla. The shape and structure of these layers are, in turn, determined by the shape of the hair follicle. Hair growth begins with the production of keratinocytes by the basal cells of the hair bulb.

Skin and Nail: Barrier Function, Structure, and Anatomy Considerations for Drug Delivery

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Adnexal structures such as hair follicles, arrector pili muscle and sweat glands are clearly seen. b Higher magnification of normal skin shows the four principal.


Skin and skin appendage

Written and peer-reviewed by physicians—but use at your own risk. Read our disclaimer. The skin is the largest organ of the body, covering an area of approximately 2 m 2.

Drug delivery for both skin and nails is an area receiving ever-increasing attention. To effectively deliver active pharmaceutical ingredients APIs across the skin transdermal delivery or nail transungual delivery it is necessary to consider the anatomy and physiology of these barriers. With this information in hand, one can more effectively utilize drug delivery approaches to maximize the effectiveness of the API — getting the right amount to the right place at the right time. The advantages of local delivery include, among others, minimized systemic toxicity, high local drug concentrations, avoidance of first pass issues and cost.

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Structure and function of skin, hair and nails

Common integument refers to skin and subcutaneous tissue, hair, nails, and breast. The last-named is described with the upper limb. The skin cutis provides a waterproof and protective covering for the body, contains sensory nerve endings, and aids in the regulation of temperature.

Integumentary system

Nurses need to understand the skin and its functions to identify and manage skin problems. This article comes with a self-assessment enabling you to test your knowledge after reading it. Nurses observe the skin of their patients daily and it is important they understand the skin so they can recognise problems when they arise. This article, the first in a two-part series on the skin, looks at its structure and function. Citation: Lawton S Skin 1: the structure and functions of the skin. Nursing Times [online]; , 12,

Understanding the skin requires knowledge of its accessory structures. This article, second in a two-part series , looks at the role of hair, nails, sweat and sebaceous glands. These originate embryologically from the epidermis and include hair, nails, sweat glands and sebaceous glands. This article, the second in a two-part series , looks at the structure and function of the main accessory structures of the skin.


It consists of three layers: the epidermis, preventing chemicals and micro-​organisms entering the body, the dermis playing a role in immunological surveillance.


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