Creative and mental growth viktor lowenfeld pdf

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Explore a new genre. Burn through a whole series in a weekend. Let Grammy award-winning narrators transform your commute. Broaden your horizons with an entire library,all your own. Lambert Brittain Free download, audio books, books to read, good books to read, cheap books, good books, online books, books online, book reviews, read booksonline, books to read online, online library, greatbooks to read, best books to read, top books to read Creative and Mental Growth 8th Edition by Viktor Lowenfeld, W.

Viktor Lowenfeld

His life and career have been a continuing topic of study in the field. He taught art in the elementary schools in Vienna while attending the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts, which he found "very dry and academic. Lowenfeld visited the Institute for the Blind to validate or disprove Steinberg's approach. He also studied at the University in Vienna in art history and psychology, graduating in While still engaged in his studies, he became a member of the staff at the Institute for the Blind.

Sigmund Freud read an article about Lowenfeld's work with the blind and visited him at the institute. As a result, Lowenfeld became more seriously involved in research as a scientific venture. His ideas on the therapeutic uses of creative activity in the arts resulted in several books.

The first was titled Die Entstehung der Plastik The genesis of sculpturing, , which was based on his doctoral dissertation. The second was titled Plastiche Arbeiten Blinder Sculptures of the blind, A third, though initially written in German, became his first English publication, The Nature of Creative Activity D'Amico took credit for introducing Lowenfeld into the circles of American art education. Having experienced racial prejudice at the hands of the Nazis, he was acutely aware of the racism experienced by his African-American students at Hampton.

Though his field was psychology, Lowenfeld was directly responsible for establishing the art department at Hampton. In Lowenfeld was invited to teach summer courses at Pennsylvania State College now the Pennsylvania State University and, in the following year, was invited to become chairman of art education, a position he held until his death in Several of his Hampton students followed him to Pennsylvania State College to continue their studies.

In Creative and Mental Growth was published and became the single most influential textbook in art education during the latter half of the twentieth century, having gone through seven editions.

This text was widely adopted in courses for prospective elementary school teachers throughout the United States, a time when teacher education programs were undergoing rapid expansion in response to the shortage of teachers that followed World War II. This book describes the characteristics of child art at each stage of development and prescribes appropriate types of art media and activities for each age.

Its strong psychological orientation provides a scientific basis for creative expression and the practices that cultivate it. Lowenfeld's views of child art were grounded in constructs drawn from two sources.

One was the psychoanalytic school of psychology in which evidence of aesthetic, social, physical, intellectual, and emotional growth is reflected in the art of children. The second was the concept of stages of growth in art, which originated in German and Austrian sources. Lowenfeld did not claim to originate these stages but adapted them from earlier sources. He also identified two expressive types of individuals that arise with the onset of adolescence.

The first is the haptic type, which is primarily concerned with bodily sensations and subjective experiences in which individuals are emotionally involved. By contrast, the visual type usually approaches the world from the standpoint of appearances. Such students feel more like spectators than participants.

Lowenfeld suggested that each creative type needed a different instructional approach. He saw the free expression of children in artistic media as necessary for the healthy growth of the individual.

Emotional or mental disturbance results when children are thwarted, either by a loss of self-confidence or by the imposition of adult concepts of so-called good art.

Concern for mental health had social consequences as well. In the second edition of Creative and Mental Growth he injected a personal note: "Having experienced the devastating effect of rigid dogmatism and disrespect for individual differences, I know that force does not solve problems and that the basis for human relationships is usually created in the homes and kindergartens.

I feel strongly that without the imposed discipline common in German family lives and schools the acceptance of totalitarianism would have been impossible. He was critical of his former teacher Franz Cizek, who emphasized the aesthetic aspects of child art as the sole purpose for art education. This "is much against our philosophy, and I believe also against the needs of our time. Influence on Art Education A number of students were drawn to Lowenfeld both through his text Creative and Mental Growth, and through extensive lectures and presentations given at state and national conferences throughout the late s and s.

Many came to the Pennsylvania State University to study, and by its graduate program had become the largest one in art education in the United States. Lowenfeld wrote about the similarity of creativity in the arts with that of the sciences, suggesting that general creativeness might transfer from the arts.

A number of doctoral dissertations were inspired by these views on the psychological importance of creativity cultivated in the arts for creative abilities in general. Although revered by numerous students, Lowenfeld was not without his critics. D'Amico felt that Lowenfeld had over-psychologized art education and that too many future teachers were pursuing psychological research rather than deepening their powers of creative expression.

In addition, with the onset of the curriculum reform movement that was spurred by Soviet space achievements, such as the launch of Sputnik in , the importance of discipline-oriented forms of study began to challenge Lowenfeld's ideas about creativity as the central purpose of art education. Q]Lowenfeld had identified specific stages in the growth of a child s understanding of art.

What are they? What are your reflections? Bibliography D'Amico, Victor. Hollingsworth, C. Lanier, Vincent. Lowenfeld, Viktor. The Nature of Creative Activity. New York: Harcourt Brace. Creative and Mental Growth. New York: Macmillan. Creative and Mental Growth, 2nd edition.

Michael, John A. The Lowenfeld Lectures. Saunders, Robert. Sylvia K. Smith, P. Open navigation menu. Close suggestions Search Search.

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Is this content inappropriate? Report this Document. Flag for inappropriate content. Download now. Viktor Lowenfeld. Related titles. Carousel Previous Carousel Next. Jump to Page. Search inside document. Viktor Lowenfeld, professor of art education at the Pennsylvania State University, helped to define and develop the field of art education in the United States. Documents Similar To Viktor Lowenfeld.

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ISBN 13: 9780023721106

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Creative and mental growth. a textbook on art education. by Viktor Lowenfeld. ; 2 Ratings; 53 Want to read; 3 Currently reading; 1 Have read.


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His life and career have been a continuing topic of study in the field. He taught art in the elementary schools in Vienna while attending the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts, which he found "very dry and academic. Lowenfeld visited the Institute for the Blind to validate or disprove Steinberg's approach. He also studied at the University in Vienna in art history and psychology, graduating in While still engaged in his studies, he became a member of the staff at the Institute for the Blind.

Creative and Mental Growth, 8th Edition

If You're a Student

Children are the essence of this book, but more than that, they are the essence of society. Creative and intellectual growth are the basis of any educational system, and it is the hope that this book can contribute to an understanding of the importance of this area so as to make the education of children a joyful and meaningful experience. The content is aimed at an understanding and appreciation of children and their art products. It is not the making of products that is the concern of this book, but rather it is the process of art and the value of these experiences to children's learning that is crucial. It is fascinating to realize that as children grow and experience the world in both physical and psychological settings, their physical, mental, and creative growth also change.

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