# Applications of eigenvalues and eigenvectors pdf

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- Browse Civil Engineering Studies by Subject "Eigenvalues"
- applications of eigenvalues and eigenvectors in civil engineering pdf
- applications of eigenvalues and eigenvectors in real life
- Browse Civil Engineering Studies by Subject "Eigenvalues"

Why are eigenvalues and eigenvectors important? Let's look at some real life applications of the use of eigenvalues and eigenvectors in science, engineering and computer science. Google's extraordinary success as a search engine was due to their clever use of eigenvalues and eigenvectors. From the time it was introduced in , Google's methods for delivering the most relevant result for our search queries has evolved in many ways, and PageRank is not really a factor any more in the way it was at the beginning.

## Browse Civil Engineering Studies by Subject "Eigenvalues"

Why are eigenvalues and eigenvectors important? Let's look at some real life applications of the use of eigenvalues and eigenvectors in science, engineering and computer science. Google's extraordinary success as a search engine was due to their clever use of eigenvalues and eigenvectors. From the time it was introduced in , Google's methods for delivering the most relevant result for our search queries has evolved in many ways, and PageRank is not really a factor any more in the way it was at the beginning.

Let's assume the Web contains 6 pages only. The author of Page 1 thinks pages 2, 4, 5, and 6 have good content, and links to them. The author of Page 2 only likes pages 3 and 4 so only links from her page to them. The links between these and the other pages in this simple web are summarised in this diagram.

Google engineers assumed each of these pages is related in some way to the other pages, since there is at least one link to and from each page in the web. Their task was to find the "most important" page for a particular search query, as indicated by the writers of all 6 pages. For example, if everyone linked to Page 1, and it was the only one that had 5 incoming links, then it would be easy - Page 1 would be returned at the top of the search result.

However, we can see some pages in our web are not regarded as very important. For example, Page 3 has only one incoming link. Should its outgoing link to Page 5 be worth the same as Page 1's outgoing link to Page 5? The beauty of PageRank was that it regarded pages with many incoming links especially from other popular pages as more important than those from mediocre pages, and it gave more weighting to the outgoing links of important pages.

For the 6-page web illustrated above, we can form a "link matrix" representing the relative importance of the links in and out of each page. Considering Page 1, it has 4 outgoing links to pages 2, 4, 5, and 6. Meanwhile, Page 2 has only two outgoing links, to pages 3 and 4.

We continue the same process for the rest of the 6 pages. I expanded the determinant and then solved it for zero using Wolfram Alpha. We could set up the six equations for this situation, substitute and choose a "convenient" starting value, but for vectors of this size, it's more logical to use a computer algebra system.

Using Wolfram Alpha, we find the corresponding eigenvector is:. As Page 5 has the highest PageRank of 8 in the above vector , we conclude it is the most "important", and it will appear at the top of the search results. An electical circuit consists of 2 loops, one with a 0.

The power supply is 12 V. We'll learn how to solve such circuits using systems of differential equations in a later chapter, beginning at Series RLC Circuit. Let's see how to solve such a circuit that means finding the currents in the two loops using matrices and their eigenvectors and eigenvalues.

We are making use of Kirchhoff's voltage law and the definitions regarding voltage and current in the differential equations chapter linked to above. NOTE: There is no attempt here to give full explanations of where things are coming from. It's just to illustrate the way such circuits can be solved using eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Scenario: A market research company has observed the rise and fall of many technology companies, and has predicted the future market share proportion of three companies A, B and C to be determined by a transition matrix P, at the end of each monthly interval:.

Notice each row adds to 1. We can calculate the predicted market share after 1 month, s 1 , by multiplying P and the current share matrix:. Next, we can calculate the predicted market share after the second month, s 2 , by squaring the transition matrix which means applying it twice and multiplying it by s 0 :.

Continuing in this fashion, we see that after a period of time, the market share of the three companies settles down to around Here's a table with selected values. This type of process involving repeated multiplication of a matrix is called a Markov Process , after the 19th century Russian mathematician Andrey Markov.

Next, we'll see how to find these terminating values without the bother of multiplying matrices over and over. First, we need to consider the conditions under which we'll have a steady state. If there is no change of value from one month to the next, then the eigenvalue should have value 1. It means multiplying by matrix P N no longer makes any difference.

We need to make use of the transpose of matrix P , that is P T , for this solution. If we use P , we get trivial solutions since each row of P adds to 1.

The eigenvectors of the transpose are the same as those for the original matrix. We now normalize these 3 values, by adding them up, dividing each one by the total and multiplying by We obtain:.

This value represents the "limiting value" of each row of the matrix P as we multiply it by itself over and over. More importantly, it gives us the final market share of the 3 companies A, B and C.

We can see these are the values for the market share are converging to in the above table and graph. For interest, here is the result of multiplying matrix P by itself 40 times. We see each row is the same as we obtained by the procedure involving the transpose above. Matrices and Flash games. Multiplying matrices. Inverse of a matrix by Gauss-Jordan elimination. Matrices and determinants in engineering by Faraz [Solved!

Name optional. Determinants Systems of 3x3 Equations interactive applet 2. Large Determinants 3. Matrices 4. Multiplication of Matrices 4a.

Matrix Multiplication examples 4b. Finding the Inverse of a Matrix 5a. Simple Matrix Calculator 5b. Inverse of a Matrix using Gauss-Jordan Elimination 6.

Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors 8. Applications of Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors. Examples on this page a. Google's PageRank b. Electronics: RLC circuits c. Repeated applications of a matrix.

Google's home page in Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors calculator. Related, useful or interesting IntMath articles Matrices and Flash games This is an interesting tutorial on how matrices are used in Flash animations.

This article points to 2 interactives that show how to multiply matrices. Here's a method for finding inverses of matrices which reduces the chances of getting lost. Click to search:. Online Algebra Solver This algebra solver can solve a wide range of math problems. Go to: Online algebra solver.

## applications of eigenvalues and eigenvectors in civil engineering pdf

Tanvir Prince 1 , , Nieves Angulo 1. Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors are usually taught toward the middle of the semester and this modulo can be implemented right after the topics of diagonalization. Comparing to the other modulo, students will see applications of some advance topics. This also shows one quick application of eigenvalues and eigenvectors in environmental science. DOI:

Eigenvalues and eigenvectors allow us to "reduce" a linear operation to separate, simpler, problems. For example, if a stress is applied to a "plastic" solid, the deformation can be dissected into "principle directions"- those directions in which the deformation is greatest.

## applications of eigenvalues and eigenvectors in real life

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They are used to solve differential equations, harmonics problems, population models, etc. In Chemical Engineering they are mostly used to solve differential equations and to analyze the stability of a system. Eigenvectors and Eigenvalues are best explained using an example. Take a look at the picture below. In the left picture, two vectors were drawn on the Mona Lisa.

Geometrically , an eigenvector, corresponding to a real nonzero eigenvalue, points in a direction in which it is stretched by the transformation and the eigenvalue is the factor by which it is stretched. If the eigenvalue is negative, the direction is reversed. If T is a linear transformation from a vector space V over a field F into itself and v is a nonzero vector in V , then v is an eigenvector of T if T v is a scalar multiple of v. This can be written as. There is a direct correspondence between n -by- n square matrices and linear transformations from an n -dimensional vector space into itself, given any basis of the vector space.

*Eigenvectors and their Applications By Dr. Sharma Sr.*

### Browse Civil Engineering Studies by Subject "Eigenvalues"

Print Send Add Share. Notes Abstract: This is a set of lectures on the elementary mathematics that is useful in formulating models and solving equations deriving from physical problems. The problems used by way of illustration are problems of interest to chemical engineers, but the mathematics is not so limited. Models of physical problems may be either linear or non-linear. In chemical engineering the non-linear are the rule.

Mathematics Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for people studying math at any level and professionals in related fields. It only takes a minute to sign up. I know the theory and these examples, but now in order to do my best to prepare a course I'm teaching, I'm looking for ideas about good real life examples of usage of these concepts. Using singular value decomposition for image compression. Deriving Special Relativity is more natural in the language of linear algebra. In fact, Einstein's second postulate really states that "Light is an eigenvector of the Lorentz transform. Spectral Clustering.

Instructor: Dan Spielman. They have applications across all engineering and science disciplines including graphs and networks. These are special scalars and vectors associated with matrices and have applications in variety of technical fields. Access the answers to hundreds of Eigenvalues and eigenvectors questions that are explained in a way that's easy for you to understand. De nition If the matrix A is symmetric, then its eigenvalues and eigenvectors are particularly well behaved.

PDF | On Jan 25, , Tanvir Prince and others published Application of Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors and Diagonalization to Environmental.