Refrigeration and cold chain pdf
File Name: refrigeration and cold chain .zip
- The Vaccine Cold Chain and Critical Cooling Equipment
- REFRIGERATION ENGINEERING AND COLD CHAIN
- Cold-Chain Systems in China and Value-Chain Analysis
Convenient, quick, but not very accurate. Cold room envelope insulation characteristics and number of insulation layers Cooling load calculations and cold storage desig. Design of storage facilities.
The Vaccine Cold Chain and Critical Cooling Equipment
Cold supply chains or cold-chain systems are emerging rapidly in China. This chapter presents an overview of cold-chain systems in China, including those in fresh agricultural products, frozen processed products, and biopharmaceutical products. The rapid growth of the cold-chain supply systems emphasizes the need to establish integrated systems. We attempt to explain the integration of cold supply chains in China. This chapter is based on case studies of cold-chain companies in China within the framework of value-chain analysis. Recent integrations of cold-chain suppliers in China are reviewed along with the rationales behind the integration in terms of value creation. The findings will be of use for cold-chain practitioners and policy-makers to understand the observed behaviors of cold-chain systems.
The cold chain involves the transportation of temperature-sensitive products along a supply chain through thermal and refrigerated packaging methods and the logistical planning to protect the integrity of these shipments. While globalization has made the relative distance between regions of the world much smaller, the physical separation of these same regions is still a very important reality. The greater the physical separation, the more likely freight can be damaged in one of the complex transport operations involved. Some goods can be damaged by shocks, while undue temperature variations can damage others. For a range of goods labeled as perishables, particularly food produces , their quality degrades with time since they maintain chemical reactions, which rate can be mostly mitigated with lower temperatures. It takes time and coordination to move a shipment efficiently, and every delay can have negative consequences, notably if this cargo is perishable. There are several means in which cold chain products can be transported, including refrigerated trucks and railcars, refrigerated cargo ships, reefers, and air cargo.
REFRIGERATION ENGINEERING AND COLD CHAIN
Twiga Foods workers cleaning and sorting unripened bananas grown by rural farmers in Kenya before trucking them to a cold storage facility in the capital city, Nairobi. The bananas eventually will be sold by street vendors in the city. Food refrigeration and cold storage equipment are finding their way into rural areas of the world that need them the most. Rural farmers are using these emerging cold chains — temperature-controlled supply chains — to grow high-value produce and access lucrative markets. Yet, this shift is not happening fast enough.
Vaccine Cold Chain Comprehensive range of storage and passive transport systems for the storage and distribution of vaccines and in general of all temperature-sensitive preparations under various climatic and technical conditions. The medical challenges our partners and clients face on the ground can be overwhelming. By continuously engaging with them and gathering insights through dialogue and exchange, we are able to understand their evolving needs. Today more children than ever before are being reached with immunization which curently averts an estimated 2. B Medical Systems Solar Direct Drive The Solar Direct Drive solution consists of several vaccine refrigerators and ice-pack freezers working straight from solar panels without batteries and regulators.
Cold-Chain Systems in China and Value-Chain Analysis
Tech Food Technology Course No. Lecture outline P. It also includes the process of reducing and maintaining the temperature of a body below the general temperature of its surroundings. For example, if some space say in cold storage is to be kept at - 2 C K , we must continuously extract heat which flows into it due to leakage through the walls and also the heat which is brought into it with the articles stored after the temperature is once reduced to - 2 C K.
Two case studies in cold chain failure offer insights into preventing catastrophic public health consequences through simple precautions. In the past, failures of vaccine storage have led to expensive product losses and the administration of compromised vaccines to patients. High-profile cases of compromised vaccines due to improper temperature regulation have been recorded in both Canada and the United States. In May , the temperatures of 3 refrigerators for storing vaccines at a large public health office in Alberta, Canada were left unmonitored for 20 days.
The cold chain industry is changing fast. Between the increased development and usage of temperature sensitive biologic pharmaceuticals and consumer preferences for convenient, fresh foods, the cold chain must adapt quickly. Consumer tastes have changed and continue to evolve towards a preference for locally sourced, ethnically diverse, healthier fresh food products in a wide variety of options.
Черт возьми! - Он отшвырнул паяльник и едва не подавился портативным фонариком. - Дьявольщина. Джабба начал яростно отдирать каплю остывшего металла. Она отвалилась вместе с содранной кожей. Чип, который он должен был припаять, упал ему на голову. - Проклятие.
Она знала, что есть только один способ доказать свою правоту - выяснить все самой, а если понадобится, то с помощью Джаббы. Мидж развернулась и направилась к двери. Откуда ни возьмись появился Бринкерхофф и преградил ей дорогу. - Куда держишь путь. - Домой! - солгала Мидж. Бринкерхофф не уходил с дороги. - Это тебе велел Фонтейн? - спросила .
Все внимание Беккера сосредоточилось на открытой двери, и он забыл о жгучей боли в ногах.