Mass media and every day life chapter 1 pdf
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- concept of communication pdf
- 5.3 Social Interaction in Everyday Life
- David Grazian, Mix It Up: Popular Culture, Mass Media, and Society
- Chapter 5: Media Of Mass Communication
concept of communication pdf
Journalism and Mass Communication " Kalyani Suresh. Chapter 1 focused on the developmental stages of Communication and summed up Communication as a complex and dynamic process leading to the evolution of meaning. The study of communication and mass media has led to the formulation of many theories: structural and functional theories believe that social structures are real and function in ways that can be observed objectively; cognitive and behavioral theories tend to focus on psychology of individuals; interactionist theories view social life as a process of interaction; interpretive theories uncover the ways people actually understand their own experience; and critical theories are concerned with the conflict of interests in society and the way communication perpetuates domination of one group over another.
These were termed "normative theories" by McQuail in the sense that they "mainly express ideas of how the media ought to or can be expected to operate under a prevailing set of conditions and values. According to this theory, mass media, though not under the direct control of the State, had to follow its bidding. Under an Authoritarian approach in Western Europe, freedom of thought was jealously guarded by a few people ruling classes , who were concerned with the emergence of a new middle class and were worried about the effects of printed matter on their thought process.
Steps were taken to control the freedom of expression. The result was advocacy of complete dictatorship. The theory promoted zealous obedience to a hierarchical superior and reliance on threat and punishment to those who did not follow the censorship rules or did not respect authority.
Censorship of the press was justified on the ground that the State always took precedence over the individual's right to freedom of expression.
This theory stemmed from the authoritarian philosophy of Plato - B. C , who thought that the State was safe only in the hands of a few wise men. Thomas Hobbes - , a British academician, argued that the power to maintain order was sovereign and individual objections were to be ignored. Engel , a German thinker further reinforced the theory by stating that freedom came into its supreme right only under Authoritarianism. The world has been witness to authoritarian means of control over media by both dictatorial and democratic governments.
This movement is based on the right of an individual, and advocates absence of restraint. The basis of this theory dates back to 17th century England when the printing press made it possible to print several copies of a book or pamphlet at cheap rates. The State was thought of as a major source of interference on the rights of an individual and his property. Libertarians regarded taxation as institutional theft.
Popular will vox populi was granted precedence over the power of State. Milton in Aeropagitica in , referred to a self righting process if free expression is permitted "let truth and falsehood grapple. Libertarians argued that the press should be seen as the Fourth Estate reflecting public opinion. What the theory offers, in sum, is power without social responsibility. In their book Four Theories Of Press , they stated "pure libertarianism is antiquated, outdated and obsolete.
The commission found that the free market approach to press freedom had only increased the power of a single class and has not served the interests of the less well-off classes. The emergence of radio, TV and film suggested the need for some means of accountability.
Thus the theory advocated some obligation on the part of the media to society. A judicial mix of self regulation and state regulation and high professional standards were imperative.
Social Responsibility theory thus became the modern variation in which the duty to one"s conscience was the primary basis of the right of free expression. This theory is derived from the ideologies of Marx and Engel that "the ideas of the ruling classes are the ruling ideas".
It was thought that the entire mass media was saturated with bourgeois ideology. Lenin thought of private ownership as being incompatible with freedom of press and that modern technological means of information must be controlled for enjoying effective freedom of press. The theory advocated that the sole purpose of mass media was to educate the great masses of workers and not to give out information.
The public was encouraged to give feedback as it was the only way the media would be able to cater to its interests. Two more theories were later added as the "four theories of the press" were not fully applicable to the non-aligned countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America, who were committed to social and economic development on their own terms. The two theories were:. The underlying fact behind the genesis of this theory was that there can be no development without communication.
Under the four classical theories, capitalism was legitimized, but under the Development communication theory, or Development Support Communication as it is otherwise called, the media undertook the role of carrying out positive developmental programmes, accepting restrictions and instructions from the State. The media subordinated themselves to political, economic, social and cultural needs. Hence the stress on "development communication" and "development journalism".
The weakness of this theory is that "development" is often equated with government propaganda. This theory vehemently opposes the commercialization of modern media and its top-down non-participant character.
The need for access and right to communicate is stressed. Bureaucratic control of media is decried. Before the first World War, there was no separate field of study on Communication, but knowledge about mass communication was accumulating. It propounded the view that the mass media had a powerful influence on the mass audience and could deliberately alter or control peoples' behaviour.
Klapper formulated several generalizations on the effects of mass media. His research findings are as follows: " Mass-media ordinarily does not serve as a necessary and sufficient cause of audience effect, but rather functions through a nexus of mediating factors and influences.
These mediating factors render mass-communication as a contributory agent in a process of reinforcing the existing conditions. The main mediating factors which he considers responsible for the functions and effects of mass communications are - selective exposure i. In the early 40"s, before the invention of television, Lazarsfeld, Berelson and Goudet conducted an American survey on mass campaigns.
The study revealed that informal social relationships had played a part in modifying the manner in which individuals selected content from the media campaign.
The study also indicated that ideas often flowed from the radio and newspapers to opinion leaders and from them to the less active sections of society. Thus, informal social groups have some degree of influence on people and mould the way they select media content and act on it.
Source: CIA Advertising at www. This theory simply stated that mass communication media channels communicate directly to the mass audience without the message being filtered by opinion leaders. This was based on the idea that there are a number of relays in the communication flow from a source to a large audience. This theory propounded by Katz in , is concerned with how people use media for gratification of their needs. An outcome of Abraham Maslow's Heirarchy of Needs , it propounds the fact that people choose what they want to see or read and the different media compete to satisfy each individual"s needs.
In the hierarchy of needs, there are five levels in the form of a pyramid with the basic needs such as food and clothing at the base and the higher order needs climbing up the pyramid.
The fulfillment of each lower level need leads to the individual looking to satisfy the next level of need and so on till he reaches the superior-most need of self-actualization. The Uses and Gratifications approach reminds us that people use media for many purposes. As media users become increasingly confronted with choices, this approach should direct our attention to the audience.
Lull's television research found that families used television for communication facilitation, relationship building, intimacy, and for structuring the day.
In general researchers have found four kinds of gratifications:. Information - we want to find out about society and the world- we want to satisfy our curiosity. This would fit the news and documentaries which both give us a sense that we are learning about the world.
Personal Identity - we may watch the television in order to look for models for our behaviour. So, for example, we may identify with characters that we see in a soap. The characters help us to decide what feel about ourselves and if we agree with their actions and they succeed we feel better about ourselves. Integration and Social Interaction - we use the media in order to find out more about the circumstances of other people. Watching a show helps us to empathize and sympathize with the lives of others so that we may even end up thinking of the characters in programme as friends.
Entertainment - sometimes we simply use the media for enjoyment, relaxation or just to fill time. Riley and Riley found that children in peer groups used adventure stories from the media for group games while individual children used media stories for fantasizing and daydreaming.
The study thus found that different people use the same messages from the media for different purposes. Katz replaced the question "what do media do to people? Cognitive needs acquiring information, knowledge and understanding ; Affective needs emotional, pleasurable experience ; Personal integrative needs strengthening self image ; Social integrative needs strengthening self image ; Tension release needs escape and diversion.
McQuail, Blumler and Brown suggested the following individual needs categories:. Rubin and Bantz studied the uses and gratifications of "new technology" by examining VCR use. They found the following motives for VCR use: 1 library storage of movies and shows 2 watching music videos 3 Using exercise tapes 4 renting movies 5 letting children view 6 time-shifting 7 Socializing by viewing with others 8 Critical viewing including TV watching and studying tapes.
Propounded by Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann, this theory states that the media publicizes opinions that are mainstream and people adjust their opinions according to their perceptions to avoid being isolated. Individuals who perceive their own opinion as being accepted will express it, whilst those who think themselves as being a minority, suppress their views.
Innovators and change agents are unafraid to voice different opinions, as they do not fear isolation. Festinger formulated the consistency theories that talked about people"s need for consistency in their beliefs and judgements. In order to reduce dissonance created by inconsistencies in belief, judgments and action people expose themselves to information that is consistent with their ideas and actions, and they shut out other communications.
This theory puts forth the ability of the media to influence the significance of events in the public's mind. The media set the agenda for the audience's discussion and mentally order and organize their world. The theory is consistent with a "use and gratification" approach. McCombs and Shaw assert that the agenda-setting function of the media causes the correlation between the media and public ordering of priorities.
The people most affected by the media agenda are those who have a high need for orientation. Developed by Ball-Rokeach and DeFluer , the key idea behind this theory is that audiences depend on media information to meet needs and reach goals, and social institutions and media systems interact with audiences to create needs, interests, and motives in the person.
The degree of dependence is influenced by the number and centrality of information functions and social stability. Some questions that this theory raised were : Do media create needs? Do people turn to media to achieve gratification and satisfy needs? Are media needs personal, social, cultural, political, or all of these? Play is an activity pursued for pleasure. The daily withdrawal of people into the mass media in their after hours is a matter of subjectivity.
The effect of mass communication is not escapism nor seducing the masses. Rather it is seen as anti-anxiety producing, and are regarded as communication-pleasure.
5.3 Social Interaction in Everyday Life
Communication is the process of creating, interpreting, and negotiating meaning. Communication can be verbal, nonverbal, or textual. It can be aural, visual, or even physical. Although communication occurs in a variety of different ways, it is always a learned behaviour. While most human beings are born with the physical abilities to speak, to hear, to see, and so on, people must learn to communicate through codes, symbols, and systems of language.
David Grazian, Mix It Up: Popular Culture, Mass Media, and Society
Journalism and Mass Communication " Kalyani Suresh. Chapter 1 focused on the developmental stages of Communication and summed up Communication as a complex and dynamic process leading to the evolution of meaning. The study of communication and mass media has led to the formulation of many theories: structural and functional theories believe that social structures are real and function in ways that can be observed objectively; cognitive and behavioral theories tend to focus on psychology of individuals; interactionist theories view social life as a process of interaction; interpretive theories uncover the ways people actually understand their own experience; and critical theories are concerned with the conflict of interests in society and the way communication perpetuates domination of one group over another. These were termed "normative theories" by McQuail in the sense that they "mainly express ideas of how the media ought to or can be expected to operate under a prevailing set of conditions and values.
How does mass communication function differently than interpersonal communication? Do we have relationships with media like we have relationships with people? To answer these questions, we can look at some of the characteristics and functions of mass communication. One key characteristic of mass communication is its ability to overcome the physical limitations present in face-to-face communication.
How did humans develop the ability to communicate? Are humans the only creatures on earth that communicate?
Chapter 5: Media Of Mass Communication
Social Inequality, Childhood and the Media pp Cite as. The study is based on a praxeological research perspective on the processes involved in the media socialisation of children and adolescents. It treats the socialisation as a dynamic and interlinked process acting on both the individual child and the relevant social contexts.
Worldwide dispersion of rave scene encourage fans to make pilgrimages to exotic hotspots. Book clubs, conventions. Warner Bros. Spread of media from one platform to another providing new narrative experiences and insights for audience ex.
Television and Everyday Life presents a radical new approach to the medium, Chapter 1. Television, ontology and the transitional object. [Man] can adapt.
15.2 Functions and Theories of Mass Communication
A fundamental feature of social life is social interaction , or the ways in which people act with other people and react to how other people are acting. To recall our earlier paraphrase of John Donne, no one is an island. This means that all individuals, except those who choose to live truly alone, interact with other individuals virtually every day and often many times in any one day. For social order, a prerequisite for any society, to be possible, effective social interaction must be possible. Partly for this reason, sociologists interested in microsociology have long tried to understand social life by analyzing how and why people interact they way they do.
The Practice of Everyday Life is a book by Michel de Certeau that examines the ways in which people individualise mass culture, altering things, from utilitarian objects to street plans to rituals , laws and language, in order to make them their own. It was originally published in French as L'invention du quotidien. The English translation is by Steven Rendall. The book is one of the key texts in the study of everyday life. The Practice of Everyday Life begins by pointing out that while social science possesses the ability to study the traditions, language, symbols, art and articles of exchange that make up a culture, it lacks a formal means by which to examine the ways in which people reappropriate them in everyday situations. This is a dangerous omission, de Certeau argues, because in the activity of re-use lies an abundance of opportunities for ordinary people to subvert the rituals and representations that institutions seek to impose upon them. With no clear understanding of such activity, social science is bound to create nothing other than a picture of people who are non-artists meaning non-creators and non-producers , passive and heavily subject to received culture.