Anatomy physiology and pathology pdf

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anatomy physiology and pathology pdf

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Having been requested. To enter into anatomical details requires no apology here, since this is the Section of Anatomy as well as that of Surgery.

The Vulva - Anatomy, Physiology and Pathology.pdf - E-Lib FK UWKS

By clicking register, I agree to your terms. All rights reserved. Design by w3layouts. Theee can be no doubt that structural lesions of the brain, and abnormal conditions as to the quantity of the blood circulating therein, and the rate and mode of its circulation, will disturb the cerebral functions in various ways.

But, in many cases of nervous and mental disturbances, and more especially of mania, and allied disorders, no such structural lesions or abnormal conditions of vascularity exist. Moreover, the derangements of intellect which coincide with structural lesions of the solid portions of the brain when those lesions are uncomplicated and with vascular congestions of that organ, appear, at least, in general, to amount to more than a weakness, a defect of the faculties of the mind; such as a slowness of comprehension, lethargy, insensibility, or that species of incoherence, which is merely a Avant of power to continue the attention to one point, or to one train of ideas.

In Andral's Clinique, there are described the post mortem appearances, in twenty-four fatal cases of affections of the membranes of the brain, consisting of tumours of the dura mater, sanguineous effusions between the dura mater and arachnoid, and of inflammations of the arachnoid, the dura mater and the pia mater, in various stages and degrees of intensity. Delirium occurred in seventeen of those cases during life, and although the precise character of the delirium is not ex' pressly stated, yet from the notice of the presence of other symptoms, showing a want of vital energy, and of the alternation, coincidence, or succession, of coma and stupor, there can be little doubt that the character of the accom panying mental affection was of that asthenic description already described.

But inflammations of the membranes admittedly produce more frequent, better marked, more sthenic, and more violent mental disturbances, than inflammations of the substance of the brain. Indeed, Lallemand undertakes to prove, that delirium is never observed in inflammations of the substance of the brain, which are exempt from complication, and that this symptom belongs especially to inflammations of the arachnoid.

Delirium was absent during life in sixty of those cases, and present only in fifteen. In inflammations of as well as of the brain, debrium will frequently any other important organ, arise. A paper from the pen of Sir Everard Home, in the twenty-fourth volume " of the Edinburgh Review," exhibits, in a very striking and circumstantial manner, the extent of injury which the brain may sustain, without any suspension of its faculties; and the perusal of this paper can scarcely fail to leave a strong impression on the mind, that considerable structural lesion of the brain may exist with little or no mental disturbance.

On the other hand, a careful and impartial investigation of the results of post mortem examinations will, I am convinced, tend to show, that, where the intellect has deviated most permanently and obviously, from the healthy standard; as in mania and its allied disorders, there is frequently found to be no structural lesion whatever of the solid portions of the brain. When such lesions have been found to exist, they have been most frequently of such slight extent, and of such recent origin, as to shew that they have been, not the cause of the violent mental disturbance, but rather accidental coincidences or consecutive alterations.

In a review of recent publications on insanity, which appeared in the "Dublin Medical Journal for November, ," the reviewer observes, that the pathology of insanity is very obscure, and throws little light the disease, and he quotes from a recent work of Sir Alexander Morison's this observation:?

Greding, Pinel, and Haslam have also drawn nearly similar conclusions. In the following observations, it is intended to adduce some facts, authorities, and arguments, which have occurred to rac, indicating the existence of a constant relation between the chemical and physical constitution of the blood circulating in the brain, and the powers, character, perfection, and imperfection of the cerebral functions.

What has been said applies to the relative and not to the absolute size of the heart. Now, though the heart of a hawk be absolutely smaller than that of a turkey-cock, it is nevertheless larger in proportion to other parts of the animal. Besides, birds of prey, like other carnivorous animals, in part owe their courage to the strength of their weapons of offence.

At all events, great differences have been ascertained to exist in the composition of the blood of those animals, consisting, amongst others, in a greater proportion of globules and a less proportion of water in the carnivorous than in herbivorous animals.

The following quotations from M. Lecanu's essay on the blood not only establish the fact of this difference in the quality of the blood in those classes, and also in others where analogous differences in disposition exist, but also go far to show the efficiency of such difference in the composition of the blood, as a cause to produce such difference iu disposition:? This general result is of extreme importance, when we remember what MM. Prevost and Dumas have taught us of the totally different action exercised upon the nervous system by the serum which scarcely excites it, and by the globules which excite it violently.

By a singular coincidence, every cause which tends to diminish the mass of the blood seems to tend, at the same time, to diminish the relative proportion of the globules, whilst it increases that of the water in such a manner, that the influence of those causes has for its results to produce both the lesser fulness of the blood-vessels, and the impoverishment and fluidity of the blood which they contain.

In women the uterine losses, and in the two sexes blood-letting, and a diet of solid aliments produce this double effect in a remarkable manner. In a previous paragraph Lecanu had stated, on the authority of Prevost and Dumas, that the proportion of globules was greater in carnivorous than in herbivorous animals.

There are reasons for supposing that the relative perfection of the intellect, in man and animals, is in some measure dependent on the quality of their blood. I am fully aware that the majority of physiologists give a different explanation of this matter, and that they generally agree in the view put forward by " Midler,f viz. But those propositions of Midler's are not strictly in accordance with fact, and we do not find that the increase in size in the brain of animals is exactly accordant with the development of their intellectual faculties.

By Copeland. By Baly. The quantity of the blood circulating in the brain, the mode and rate of its circulation, and its composition, arc most probably all causes affecting the development and perfection of the cerebral faculties, as well as the mere volume of the organ? A consistent and perfect explanation of many phenomena in health, and disease, can be afforded only wThen due notice of the quality of the blood is included, with other considerations, as forming a portion of the physiology and pathology of vital action, whether mental or bodily.

I repeat, that great differences exist in the constitution of the blood in different species of animals, and in different individuals of the same species; some of which have been already stated, and others will now be considered. Leuwenhocck lias pointed out great differences in the form and size of the globules of the blood in animals of different species; and even previous to his time the division of animals into white-blooded, and red-blooded, coldblooded, and warm-blooded, showed that great differences had been considered to exist between the qualities of the blood in different species of animals.

Latterly a number of scientific men have contributed much to increase our knowledge of this subject, and have made various observations and analyses of the blood of several animals, and of man, in health and disease.

Amongst those, M. Lecanu, from the results of experiments made by himself and by M. Denis, asserts, that the effect of bad and innutritious diet is to diminish the quantity of globules, and to increase the quantity of water in the blood. Prevost and Dumas have shown by analysis, that the proportion of globules is greater, and the proportion of water less in birds, than in other animals, and as already remarked in carnivorous, than in herbivorous animals, and on the contrary that the proportion of water is greater, in animals with cold blood, than in animals with warm blood.

Lecanu has also proved that the proportion of iron differs in the blood of different species, and of different classes of animals. Naturalists, and the keepers of menageries, have long since remarked that the ferocity and thirst for blood, of beasts of prey, is violently excited by a meal of raw meat or of blood.

Tlie courage and spirit of game-cocks and of race-horses are also increased by the use of particular articles of solid or of liquid aliment; and this moral change is often produced in a space of time too short to allow of the supposition that it is owing to any alteration in the solid structure of any organ. Again, very perceptible differences arise in the physical properties of the blood, sometimes according to the medium through which respiration is carricd on, and sometimes according to the air or gases which are respired.

The various processes of nutrition, and of secretion, materially affect the composition of the blood, and as those processes arc more or less numerous and more or less perfect, so must the quality of the blood differ both in individuals and in species.

In fact, I am led to think, from some reflection on the subject, that a carcful analytic investigation would show at least as regular a gradation in the blood as in the solids, throughout the animal kingdom, and that in individuals also their blood would be found, by such an inquiry, to differ either coincidently with or consecutively to original or acquired perfection OF THE BRAIN.

Certainly there is not a single function of the animal body which does not appear to affect the composition of the blood, and to be affected by it. Of all the animal functions, that of respiration exerts the most direct and largest influence on the blood.

In proportion to the perfection of the function of respiration we constantly observe a proportionate energy, and perfection of the intellectual faculties, other circumstances being equal; and so, in like manner, as to the effects on the intellect of imperfect respiration.

Thus analogous impairments of the vital energy and of the intellectual faculties, arise when carbonic acid gas loads the blood; whether the excess of the gas arises from its direct inhalation, from the want of its removal by the natural processes, from the deficiency of oxygen gas in the air respired, from the imperfection of the circulating organs, as in morbus cceruleus, or from any other cause, provided the other circumstances which might modify those results, remain equal.

Thus also we find the energy and irritability of birds to bear a proportion to the amount of their respiration, which is" determined chiefly by the peculiarities of their respiratory organs. With regard to the rest, their rapid passage through different regions of the air, and the intense and continued action of that element upon them, renders them pre-sensible of the variations of the atmosphere to an extent of which we can have idea, and from the most ancient times has caused to be attributed to them, by superstitious persons, a power of announcing future events.

They are not devoid of memory, and even imagination, for they dream, and every one knows with what facility they may be trained, taugld various services, and to retain airs and words. With such brains, and with less energetic and less perfect respiratory and circulating apparatus, would the intellect or instinct of birds rate so high? Again, J "As respiration imparts the warmth to the blood, and the susceptibility of the nerve-fibre, reptiles have cold blood, and their aggregate muscular much less than in and birds.

Iiencc their energy is less than in the mammalia, movements can scarcely be performed otherwise than by crawling, and swimming; their habits are generally sluggish, their digestion excessively slow, their sensations obtuse; and, in cold or temperate climates, they pass nearly the whole winter in a state of lethargy.

The amount of respiration in this class is not fixed, as in the mammalia and birds; but it varies, according to the relative proportion of the diameter of the pulmonary artery, as compared with that of the aorta. Thus tortoises, and lizards, respire much more than frogs; hence the differences of energy, and sensibility, are very much greater than those between one mammal and another. But the results, on the functions of the brain, arising from differences in the perfection or imperfection of the respiratory process, are as already stated analogous; although the causcs giving rise to those differences may be very different, or even opposite, as to their effects on the animal economy, other than as regards the respiratory process.

It follows that it is the respiratory process the action of which is on the blood which influences the functions of brain, and not the effect of sympathy with some other organ on which perhaps the defect in respiration depends, as in morbus cceruleus ; nor on accessory circumstances as those might be supposed to act otherwise than by their influence on the respiration, and thence on the blootl. Another presumptive proof of the influence of the quality of the blood on the intellectual faculties of animals, may be drawn from the change of character produced in them by change in geographical position; as the chief accidents of geographical position are such as most probably act through the large influence which they exercise on the composition of the blood.

It is well known that animals, like plants, affect a certain geographical zone, out of which the species indigenous to that zone do not come to perfection, and in many instances will not live at all. When far removed from their natural geographical habitat, animals lose their spirits, the activity of their intellect and of their character becomes altered; they often will not continue their species ; they become liable to disease, pine, and die.

Changes, then, from their natural geographical habitat, effect changes in the economy of animals, as to the energy of their intellectual faculties, their habits, their dispositions, their passions, and their sexual propensities. The quality of their blood, too, must be affected by the alterations in external circumstances produced by change in geographical position, and deeply affecting the functions, especially of the respiratory organs, adapted to a different zone.

Is there any other physical change, which docs occur, or is likely to occur, in animals, from change of geographical position? The same train of argument might be pursued, as to the effects of domestication on animals; but there is so much difficulty in separating what is the result of physical causes from what is the result of education, that I will not enter into the subject more than to remark that the difference in sexual propensities, between the wild and the tame pigeon, for instance, do not appear to have any causes to explain them, other than those differences in the external physical circumstances of the two varieties, which act the blood, and through it the nervous centres.

Tt is only reasonable to suppose that the food acts in this instance as it must be supposed to do in ordinary circumstanccs? In the human species, the proportion of male to female births is greatly influenced by the condition of the parents as to circumstances which either have been ascertained experimentally to affect the constitution of the blood, or which may be inferred, rationally, and from analogy, to do so.

Thus it would appear, from the results obtained by M. Translated by Chambers. It has been already shown that the quality of the blood is affected by some of the circumstances mentioned above? But, in the mean time, it may be observed, that there is not one of those circumstances which wc can well suppose to be without influence on the constitution of the blood; aud I believe it would be impossible to point out any other common physical effect on the animal economy, in which they can all be supposed to agree.

It can scarcely be necessary to remark that, what plays a part in determining the future sex, must likewise play a part in determining the future moral and intellectual qualities of an individual organism. The transmission of hereditary mental qualities, and of peculiarities of physical organization, from the male parent to his offspring, presents an instance of the action of a fluid or solid matter; if not identical in its nature, yet of a character at least as peculiar, and as difficult of comprehension, as would be the production of ideas by the action of the blood on the brain, under the superintendence of an immaterial mental principle, should such a theory be adopted.

The semen, therefore, although a fluid, is evidently" endowed with life, and is capable of imparting life to other matter. It is equally certain that fecundation does not depend on any influence of the entire male organization, but on the semen alone. But there is a phenomenon more curious than the transmission of qualities from the male parent to his direct offspring through the semen.

It is that the peculiarities of a male animal, that has once had fruitful intercourse with a female, are more or less distinctly recognised in the offspring of subsequent connexions of that female with other males. Such instances commonly occur among the lower animals, and several " Constitution of Man.

Harvey, of Aberdeen. Harvey sets forth a theory to account for those long-observed and wellestablished facts, which has been put forward by Mr. M'Gillivray, a veterinary and which theory Dr. This theory is as follows :? Harvey explains the loss of the purity of the blood in the following manner :? See Med. Press NO. Copied from Ed. Harvey cites instances of analogous phenomena in the human species, the transmission of qualities from the male who has had the first fruitful intercourse with a female,?

Those instances in the human species he explains by a similar theory. The whole scope of this ingenious and interesting paper is strongly in support of the views which I advocate, and tends to prove that the influence of the semen, not only on the physical, but also on the mental organization of the foetus, and of the mother, is realized through the medium of the blood.

It is known that the blood-globules have different dimensions in the different animal species, and similar forms and dimensions in the same species; and also that revivification is produced in an animal bled to syncope, by the transfusion into his veins of the blood of an animal of the same species. But a deadly effect is produced by the transfusion of the blood of some classes of animals, into the system of animals of other classes; as of the blood of mammalia into the veins of birds.

The principle which renders the blood of one class of animals injurious to another class, is not the vivifying principle of the blood, which might be supposed to be peculiar to each individual class, and deadly to others; for the blood, when deprived of its fibrine by stirring, has still the effect of perfectly restoring the animal from which it was taken, although the latter be reduced by loss of blood to syncope, or apparent death; but it is an important fact, that when blood, thus deprived of its fibrine, is injected into the veins of an animal of a different class, reduced to a similar state of syncope, no revival takes place; the animal dies.

Thus, we have several series of phenomena coincident with certain ascertained qualities of the blood: firstly? And, in an abstract view, we see the power of the continuation of ccrtain types and forms of physical and mental organization amongst animals, the power of the continuance of individual animal life, and healthy nervous and intellectual action, coincident with certain qualities of blood.

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State the laboratory rules, ethics, professional code of conduct and polices. All anatomical regions are covered including head and neck, thorax, abdomen, upper limb and lower limb. The study of the relationship between internal structure and surface features of the body is called? Lying on his back B. The intent here is to use multiple-choice questions MCQ as a means to help the reader revise key facts, test understanding of concepts and the ability to apply them. Small Intestine.

Chemical anatomy, physiology and pathology of extracellular fluid; : a lecture syllabus. Chemical anatomy, physiology and pathology of extracellular fluid; a lecture syllabus. Chemical anatomy, physiology and pathology of extracellular fluid : a lecture syllabus Chemical anatomy, physiology and pathology of extracellular fluid; a lecture syllabus Companionship of water and electrolytes in the organization of body fluids. Syllabus of a course of lectures on anatomy and physiology.

The Vulva - Anatomy, Physiology and Pathology. This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. A wide variety of references are. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author. No part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form by any.


Gross anatomy refers to structures that can be studied without the aid of a microscope. Pathological anatomy is the study of changes in structures caused by.


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If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess Profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus. Please consult the latest official manual style if you have any questions regarding the format accuracy. A better description would be that the diaphragm is the primary muscle of ventilation. Its critical physiological role is to serve as the main muscle which moves air into the lungs, where this air, of course, oxygenates the blood. Since delivery of oxygenated blood to all parts of the body is critical to life, and since intact cardiac and respiratory systems are the essential elements to assure that this oxygenated blood is manufactured and delivered, failure of any of the components that makes up either one of these systems results in death or severe disability.

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