What is greenhouse effect and global warming pdf
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Jump to navigation. And yes, it's really happening. Over the past 50 years, the average global temperature has increased at the fastest rate in recorded history.
Jump to navigation. And yes, it's really happening. Over the past 50 years, the average global temperature has increased at the fastest rate in recorded history. And scientists say that unless we curb global-warming emissions, average U. Normally, this radiation would escape into space—but these pollutants, which can last for years to centuries in the atmosphere, trap the heat and cause the planet to get hotter.
That's what's known as the greenhouse effect. In the United States, the burning of fossil fuels to make electricity is the largest source of heat-trapping pollution, producing about two billion tons of CO2 every year. Coal-burning power plants are by far the biggest polluters.
Curbing dangerous climate change requires very deep cuts in emissions, as well as the use of alternatives to fossil fuels worldwide. And scientists continue to develop new ways to modernize power plants, generate cleaner electricity, and burn less gasoline while we drive.
The challenge is to be sure these solutions are put to use and widely adopted. They also said the odds of similar droughts happening in the future had roughly doubled over the past century. So global warming could turn, say, a category 3 storm into a more dangerous category 4 storm.
In , Hurricane Katrina—the costliest hurricane in U. The impacts of global warming are being felt across the globe. Extreme heat waves have caused tens of thousands of deaths around the world in recent years. And in an alarming sign of events to come, Antarctica has been losing about billion metric tons of ice per year since This rate could speed up if we keep burning fossil fuels at our current pace, some experts say, causing sea levels to rise several meters over the next 50 to years.
The United States comes in second. And America is still number one, by far, in cumulative emissions over the past years. Our responsibility matters to other countries, and it should matter to us, too. But in order to avoid the worst effects of climate change, we need to do a lot more—together with other countries—to reduce our dependence on fossil fuels and start using clean energy instead.
In , the U. Environmental Protection Agency pledged to reduce carbon pollution from our power plants by nearly a third by , relative to levels, through its Clean Power Plan. But fast-forward to , and under the Trump Administration, the EPA proposed repealing this critical tool for curbing climate change. Likewise, while under the Obama administration, the U.
Department of Transportation proposed carbon pollution and fuel economy standards intended to cut emissions through the s, under Trump administration, the DOT is working to roll back those clean vehicle safeguards that protect the climate and our health.
Fortunately, state leaders—including in car country itself—recognize that clean transportation must remain a priority if we are to address the costly risks of climate change and protect public health. And regional efforts around the country are helping to boost the electric car market , which saw an increase in sales for over Our clean energy economy is growing too, despite federal efforts to derail it.
In , wind employment grew by 32 percent and solar jobs increased by 25 percent. Globally, at the United Nations Conference on Climate Change in Paris, countries—including the United States, at the time—agreed to pollution-cutting provisions with a goal of preventing the average global temperature from rising more than 1.
Scientists say we must stay below a two-degree increase to avoid catastrophic climate impacts. Under the terms of the Paris agreement, participating nations will meet every five years, starting in , to revise their plans for cutting CO2 emissions.
Beginning in , they will also have to publicly report their progress. More than 25 cities in 17 states, with populations totaling more than 5 million have adopted resolutions that will enable them to get percent of their electricity from renewable sources like wind and solar. Even better, a new initiative by former New York City mayor Michael Bloomberg gives the urban layer of this movement a boost.
Make conserving energy a part of your daily routine and your decisions as a consumer. When you buy a car, look for one with the highest gas mileage and lowest emissions. You can also reduce your emissions by taking public transportation or carpooling when possible. And while new federal and state standards are a step in the right direction, much more needs to be done. The western city of Ahmedabad is preparing residents to cope with the longer and more intense heat waves sweeping across South Asia—and inspiring other Indian cities and states to follow suit.
The most widespread, damaging storms on earth are getting worse, and climate change is a big reason why. The U. Healing the planet starts at home—in your garage, in your kitchen, and at your dining-room table.
Short answer: Yes. Even a seemingly slight average temperature rise is enough to cause a dramatic transformation of our planet. How smog, soot, greenhouse gases, and other top air pollutants are affecting the planet—and your health.
As temperatures and carbon levels rise, even breathing has become a challenge. NRDC senior attorney Ben Longstreth explains how plaintiffs for these cases get chosen—and how you can help advance the cause in or out of the courtroom.
Gun-control activists want to use financial levers to curtail firearm sales. Can we do the same for carbon emissions? We will keep you informed with the latest alerts and progress reports.
What Causes Global Warming? Call on the Biden administration to take bold action in its first days Take Action.
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Explainer: Global warming and the greenhouse effect
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. In simplest terms, "greenhouse gases" let sunlight through to the earth's surface while trapping "outbound" radiation. This alters the radiative balance of the earth see Figure A. The greenhouse gases in the atmosphere act in much the same way as the glass panels of a greenhouse, which allow sunlight through and trap heat inside.
By Agnieszka Biskup. May 7, at pm. As they hit the soil and surface waters, those rays release much of their energy as heat. Some of the heat then radiates back out into space. However, certain gases in our atmosphere, such as carbon dioxide, methane and water vapor, work like a blanket to retain much of that heat.
Global warming , the phenomenon of increasing average air temperatures near the surface of Earth over the past one to two centuries. Increases in greenhouse gases —i. Continued global warming is expected to impact everything from energy use to water availability to crop productivity throughout the world. Poor countries and communities with limited abilities to adapt to these changes are expected to suffer disproportionately.
The threat of global climate change promises to be the single most pressing environmental issue as the world enters the 21st Century. Increasingly, it becomes incumbent upon decision-makers from a wide array of backgrounds to gain a sound understanding of the fundamentals of the climate change issue and how it relates to their areas of responsibility. The purpose of this chapter is to review the main elements of the climate change problem and the implications for Bangladesh in order to highlight the key scientific and policy issues involved.
Of those gases, known as greenhouse gases , water vapour has the largest effect. The origins of the term greenhouse effect are unclear. Fourier, however, neither used the term greenhouse effect nor credited atmospheric gases with keeping Earth warm.