Human anatomy and physiology of respiratory system pdf
File Name: human anatomy and physiology of respiratory system .zip
- Respiratory System Anatomy and Physiology
- Anatomy and physiology of respiratory system relevant to anaesthesia
- Interactive Tools
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Respiratory System Anatomy and Physiology
Clinical application of anatomical and physiological knowledge of respiratory system improves patient's safety during anaesthesia. It also optimises patient's ventilatory condition and airway patency. Such knowledge has influence on airway management, lung isolation during anaesthesia, management of cases with respiratory disorders, respiratory endoluminal procedures and optimising ventilator strategies in the perioperative period. Understanding of ventilation, perfusion and their relation with each other is important for understanding respiratory physiology. Ventilation to perfusion ratio alters with anaesthesia, body position and with one-lung anaesthesia. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, an important safety mechanism, is inhibited by majority of the anaesthetic drugs. Ventilation perfusion mismatch leads to reduced arterial oxygen concentration mainly because of early closure of airway, thus leading to decreased ventilation and atelectasis during anaesthesia.
The trillions of cells in the body require an abundant and continuous supply of oxygen to carry out their vital functions. The organs of the respiratory system include the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and their smaller branches, and the lungs, which contain the alveoli. The larynx or voice box routes air and food into the proper channels and plays a role in speech. The major function of the respiratory system is to supply the body with oxygen and to dispose of carbon dioxide. To do this, at least four distinct events, collectively called respiration, must occur. The most inferior cartilage in the larynx is the epiglottis. Unlike the other cartilages of the larynx, the epiglottis consists of hyaline cartilage.
Anatomy and physiology of respiratory system relevant to anaesthesia
This site not only includes images of and information on the above listed systems, but it also includes interactive drills and practice questions for students. This site not only includes images, but also self-quizzing options for the respiratory system as well. Once inside the system, you can zoom and rotate your virtual skeleton. Eleven systems in total are able to view and examine. T hese lectures vary in length, and will open in a new window when you click on the provided link. The primary organ involved in this process is the lung and each individual contains a right and a left lung.
The respiratory system also respiratory apparatus , ventilatory system is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants. The anatomy and physiology that make this happen varies greatly, depending on the size of the organism, the environment in which it lives and its evolutionary history. In land animals the respiratory surface is internalized as linings of the lungs. These microscopic air sacs have a very rich blood supply, thus bringing the air into close contact with the blood. These enter the lungs where they branch into progressively narrower secondary and tertiary bronchi that branch into numerous smaller tubes, the bronchioles. In birds the bronchioles are termed parabronchi.
Most of the organs of the respiratory system help to distribute air, but only the tiny, grape-like alveoli and the alveolar ducts are responsible for actual gas exchange. In addition to air distribution and gas exchange, the respiratory system filters, warms, and humidifies the air you breathe. Organs in the respiratory system also play a role in speech and the sense of smell. Upper respiratory tract: Composed of the nose, the pharynx, and the larynx, the organs of the upper respiratory tract are located outside the chest cavity.
Вот что я вам скажу, - решительно заявил директор. - Через пятнадцать минут все страны третьего мира на нашей планете будут знать, как построить межконтинентальную баллистическую ракету. Если кто-то в этой комнате считает, что ключ к шифру-убийце содержится еще где-то, помимо этого кольца, я готов его выслушать. - Директор выдержал паузу. Никто не проронил ни слова. Он снова посмотрел на Джаббу и закрыл. - Танкадо отдал кольцо с умыслом.
ГЛАВА 111 В комнате оперативного управления раздался страшный крик Соши: - Акулы. Джабба стремительно повернулся к ВР. За пределами концентрических окружностей появились две тонкие линии. Они были похожи на сперматозоиды, стремящиеся проникнуть в неподатливую яйцеклетку. - Пора, ребята! - Джабба повернулся к директору. - Мне необходимо решение. Или мы начинаем отключение, или же мы никогда этого не сделаем.