Classes of antiretroviral drugs and their examples pdf
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- Your Guide to HIV Treatment
- Antiretroviral HIV Drugs: Side Effects and Adherence
- Management of HIV/AIDS
There are several classes of antiretroviral agents that act on different stages of the HIV life-cycle. The use of multiple drugs that act on different viral targets is known as highly active antiretroviral therapy HAART.
Your Guide to HIV Treatment
Each class of drug attacks HIV in a different way. Generally, drugs from two or sometimes three classes are combined to ensure a powerful attack on HIV. It includes the following drugs:. NNRTIs interfere with the reverse transcriptase enzyme by binding directly to it, blocking the reverse transcription process. Integrase inhibitors target a protein in HIV called integrase which is essential for viral replication. Generic drugs contain the same active ingredients as branded drugs, and have comparable strength, safety, efficacy and quality.
In cell biology, a structure on the surface of a cell or inside a cell that selectively receives and binds to a specific substance. There are many receptors. CD4 T cells are called that way because they have a protein called CD4 on their surface.
Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, the family of antiretrovirals which includes efavirenz, nevirapine, etravirine, doravirine and rilpivirine. Entry inhibitors stop HIV from entering human cells. There are two types: CCR5 inhibitors and fusion inhibitors.
Once HIV has attached to both, its envelope can fuse with the host cell membrane and release viral components into the cell. You would have a test to see if this type of treatment would be effective before starting on it. One CCR5 inhibitor is licensed in Europe:. A fusion inhibitor enfuvirtide is used only for people who have no other treatment options.
Protease inhibitors PIs block the activity of the protease enzyme, which HIV uses to break up large polyproteins into the smaller pieces required for assembly of new viral particles. While HIV can still replicate in the presence of protease inhibitors, the resulting virions are immature and unable to infect new cells. Post-attachment inhibitors bind to the CD4 receptor on T-cells.
They prevent the HIV gp protein from changing its shape to engage with co-receptors after it engages with the CD4 receptor. One post-attachment inhibitor is available. Adding a small dose of a booster drug to an antiretroviral makes the liver break down the primary drug more slowly, which means that it stays in the body for longer times or at higher levels. Without the boosting agent, the prescribed dose of the primary drug would be ineffective.
There are some fixed-dose pills that combine two or three antiretroviral drugs from more than one class into a single pill that is taken once a day. Find out more about these on our page Single-tablet regimens. HIV treatment. Primary tabs View active tab Preview. Amelia Jones. August Key points There are more than 30 antiretroviral medications in six drug classes; these are listed below. The latest news and research on HIV treatment. Next review date. This page was last reviewed in August It is due for review in August Related topics.
Antiretroviral HIV Drugs: Side Effects and Adherence
Some individuals may have trouble tolerating ARV treatment due to side effects, or they may not work effectively for that individual, requiring them to change to a second- or third-line treatment regimen. If individuals do not take the medication as directed for example, taking it occasionally or intermittently , it can increase the likelihood of resistance, where the HIV strain adapts to the treatment and make ARV medications ineffective. These AIDS-defining conditions are a range of infections, cancers and illnesses that can occur due to advanced stages of HIV infection. Antiretroviral medications are a group of drugs that inhibit different steps in the HIV replication process. In this way, they can suppress HIV infection but never entirely eliminate it from the body. There are four categories of ARV medications :.
Within 3 decades of its discovery, HIV AIDS has become the number one killer infectious New class of drugs: Fusion inhibitors (FI), CCR5 Antagonists, Integrase sample to a central laboratory from other parts of the country. Manual of 4th Inter country workshop on clinical management of HIV/AIDS SEARO, Bangkok.
Management of HIV/AIDS
The class of each drug appears after the name of the drug. There are currently 6 major classes of antiretroviral drugs: nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor NRTI , nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor NNRTI , protease inhibitor PI , fusion inhibitor, chemokine coreceptor antagonist consisting of 2 subclasses: CCR5 antagonist and CXCR4 antagonist , and integrase inhibitor. Nucleoside analogues bear a structural resemblance to the natural building blocks of DNA: the nucleosides adenosine and guanosine, thymidine and cytidine. Nucleoside analogues are triphosphorylated within the cell, and some undergo further modifications didanosine, for example, is converted into its active moiety, 2',3'-dideoxyadenosine-5'-triphosphate. Nucleotide analogues resemble monophosphorylated nucleosides, and therefore require only 2 additional phosphorylations to become active inhibitors of DNA synthesis.
Different classes of HIV drugs
Each class of drug attacks HIV in a different way. Generally, drugs from two or sometimes three classes are combined to ensure a powerful attack on HIV. It includes the following drugs:. NNRTIs interfere with the reverse transcriptase enzyme by binding directly to it, blocking the reverse transcription process. Integrase inhibitors target a protein in HIV called integrase which is essential for viral replication. Generic drugs contain the same active ingredients as branded drugs, and have comparable strength, safety, efficacy and quality. In cell biology, a structure on the surface of a cell or inside a cell that selectively receives and binds to a specific substance.