Sheet metal forming processes and die design vukota boljanovic pdf
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- Die Design Fundamentals
- Sheet Metal Stamping Dies: Die Design and Die-Making Practice
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- Sheet Metal Forming Processes and Die Design
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Die Design Fundamentals
By Vukota Boljanovic. The field of tool engineering and die design, a complex and fascinating subject, continues to advance rapidly. This broad and challenging topic continues to incorporate new concepts at an increasing rate, making tool and die design a dynamic and exciting field of study.
In preparing this third edition, my most important goal has been to provide a comprehensive state-of-the-art textbook on die design fundamentals, which also encompasses the additional aims of motivating and challenging students. This new edition provides balanced coverage of relevant fundamentals and real-world practices so that the student can understand the important and often complex interrelationships between die design and the economic factors involved in manufacturing sheet metal-forming products.
A groundbreaking and comprehensive reference with many thousands of copies sold since it first debuted in as J. However, the original book has been completely revised and updated, and the order of the chapters has been changed to follow the logical process of designing a die. The plan of the book remains unique. After introductory material and a discussion of 20 types of dies, the design of a representative die is separated into 14 distinct steps.
In successive sections of the book, each step is detailed as it is applied to the design of the various types of dies listed in Chapter 2. In many figures a punch shank is shown because it is still in everyday use in many small stamping shops. Slide ram mounting holes or another clamping system must be provided in the punch holder for fastening. The final chapter deals with presses and quick die-changing QDC systems. The intent of this new edition is to provide students, instructors, and working professionals with graphically detailed assistance in understanding the underlying principles of designing single-station dies as well as small progressive dies of a type generally used once for short runs of parts manually cut from strip sheared from sheets.
For the first time, a dual English and metric system is included. New methods of producing blanks widely acknowledged within the industry, such as waterjet cutting and laser cutting are included, as well. To this third edition of the book has also been added a Glossary of the terms used.
In response to comments and suggestions by numerous reviewers, several major and minor changes have also been made throughout the text.
A page-by-page comparison with the second edition will show that literally hundred of changes have been made for improved clarity and completeness. It is hoped that by reading and studying this third edition of the book, students and other users will come to appreciate the vital nature of tool and die engineering as an academic subject that is as exciting, challenging, and as important as any other engineering and technology discipline.
The author of the third edition owes much to many people. I am grateful to my son Sasha for valuable contributions in the preparation of this edition. Finally, I wish to thank Em Turner Chitty for her competent proofreading of this new edition.
Die design, a large division of tool engineering, is a complex, fascinating subject. It is one of the most exacting of all the areas of the general field of tool designing.
How then shall we enter into the study of die design? Obviously, we shall have to begin cautiously, learning each principle thoroughly before proceeding to the next one. Otherwise it is quite likely that we should soon become hopelessly involved in the complexities of the subject and in the bewildering number and variety of principles that must be understood. What, then, is a die? The word die is a very general one and it may be well to define its meaning as it will be used in this text.
It is used in two distinct ways. When employed in a general sense, it means an entire press tool with all components taken together. When used in a more limited manner, it refers to that component which is machined to receive the blank, as differentiated from the component called the punch, which is its opposite member.
The distinction will become clear as we proceed with the study. The die designer originates designs of dies used to stamp and form parts from sheet metal, assemble parts together, and perform a variety of other operations. In this introduction you will learn basic meanings and the names of various die components; then, operations that are performed in dies will be listed and illustrated. In other sections of the book, the design of dies and die components will be explained in a far more thorough manner, so that your understanding will be complete in every respect.
To begin our study of the various components that make up a complete die, let us consider the drawing of the link illustrated in Figure 1. This part is to be blanked from steel strip and a die is to be designed for producing it in quantity. The first step in designing any die is to make a careful study of the part print because the information given on it provides many clues for solving the design problem.
Figure 1. To the uninitiated it might appear to be just a confusing maze of lines. Actually, however, each line represents important information that the die makers must have to build the die successfully. In illustrations to follow, we will remove the individual parts from this assembly and see how they appear both as three- and as two-view drawings, and as pictorial views, to help you to visualize their shapes.
As you study further, keep coming back to this illustration to see how each component fits in. When you are through, you should have a good idea of how the various parts go together to make up a complete die.
After a die has been designed on tracing paper using traditional techniques or AutoCAD, blueprints are produced for use in the die shop where the dies are actually built by die makers. This is how a blueprint of a die drawing appears.
From such prints, die makers build the die exactly as the designer designed it. The drawing must be complete with all required views, dimensions, notes, and specifications. If the die maker is obliged to ask numerous questions, the drawing was poorly done. The bill of material Figure 1. This gives required information and specifications for ordering standard parts and for cutting steel to the correct dimensions. This material is cut and assembled in the stock room, then placed in a pan, along with a print of the die drawing.
When filled, the pan must contain everything the die maker will require for building the die, including all fasteners and the die set. The die pierces two holes at the first station, and then the part is blanked out at the second station. The material from which the blanks are removed is a cold-rolled steel strip. Cold-rolled steel is a smooth, medium-hard steel, and it gets its name from the process by which it is produced. It is rolled, cold, between rollers under high pressure to provide a smooth surface.
The strip A is shown entering the die at the right. A scrap strip Figure 1. This illustration shows the material strip as it will appear after holes have been pierced and the blank has been removed from it.
We would first consider running the blank the wide way as shown at A. When blanks are positioned in this manner, the widest possible strip is employed and more blanks can be removed from each length of strip. In addition, the distance between blanks is short and little time is consumed in moving the strip from station to station.
However, for this particular blank there is a serious disadvantage in this method of positioning. Because the grain in a metal strip runs along its length, the grain in each blank would run across the short width; the blanks would be weak and lacking in rigidity.
This defect is important enough for the method to be discarded. Instead, the blanks should be positioned the long way in the strip as shown at B. The grain will then run along the length of each blank for maximum stiffness and strength. Three views of the material strip are shown in Figure 1. In addition, a pictorial view is supplied at the upper right corner to help in visualizing the strip.
In other words, this is the way you would imagine the strip if you were to draw it in three views. The top or plan view shows the strip outline, as well as all openings. This would be made actual size on the drawing. The holes are represented by circles at the first station, and the blanked opening is shown at the second station.
At the lower left, a side view of the strip is drawn. It is shown exactly as it would appear at the bottom of the press stroke, with the pierced slugs pushed out of the strip at the first station and the blank pushed out of the strip at the second station.
The narrow end view at the lower right corner is shown as a section through the blanking station, and the blank is shown pushed out of the strip. The strip in many instances is often drawn shaded to differentiate it from the numerous lines that will represent die members.
In the upper plan view, shading lines would appear on the surface of the metal. In the two lower views, the lines are shown in solid black to further differentiate the strip from the die members.
Stampings are parts cut and formed from sheet material. Look around you! Wherever you may be, you will find stampings. Many are worn on your own person; the ring on your finger is probably a stamping. Most of the parts in old-fashioned wrist watches are stampings, including the wristband. Your belt buckle, the metal grommets through which your shoe laces pass, eyeglass frame, the clip on your ball point pen, and zipper—all these are stampings.
Look around the room, any room, and you will find products of the pressed-metal industry. Most of the parts in the lighting fixture are stampings; so are threaded portions of light bulbs, door knobs, and the radiator cover. The list is a long one indeed. In the home we find stampings by the score: pots and pans, knives, forks, and spoons, coffee pot, canister set, pie plates and muffin pans, cabinet handles, kettle, can opener, and more.
The refrigerator is almost entirely made of stampings. So are the stove, toaster, and other appliances. And each single part in all these requires an average of three to six dies to produce. Every automobile contains hundreds of stampings.
The largest are the roofs, hoods, quarter-panels, doors, etc. Even the wheels are stampings. There are hundreds of smaller parts, many of which are covered and seldom seen.
Sheet Metal Stamping Dies: Die Design and Die-Making Practice
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By Vukota Boljanovic. The field of tool engineering and die design, a complex and fascinating subject, continues to advance rapidly. This broad and challenging topic continues to incorporate new concepts at an increasing rate, making tool and die design a dynamic and exciting field of study. In preparing this third edition, my most important goal has been to provide a comprehensive state-of-the-art textbook on die design fundamentals, which also encompasses the additional aims of motivating and challenging students.
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Sheet Metal Forming Processes and Die Design
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Boljanovic, Vukota. Sheet metal forming processes and die design / Vukota Boljanovic. Includes bibliographical references and index. p. cm. ISBN 1 .