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- Indoor Air Pollutants and the Impact on Human Health
- Effects of indoor air pollution on human health: A micro-level study of Aligarh City-India
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Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Indoor air quality IAQ is an important component of indoor environmental quality. It has many facets. This chapter focuses on the chemical and particulate pollutants that can be found suspended in air or deposited on or sorbed to indoor surfaces.
Indoor Air Pollutants and the Impact on Human Health
Household air pollution HAP is one of the most important global environmental and public health issues. As a result of changes in air composition due to rapid industrialization and urbanization, air quality is deteriorating and outdoor pollution is increasing daily. Simultaneously, poor ventilation, microbial growth, tobacco smoke, solid fuel use, and different toxic chemicals are causing deterioration in household air quality, which contributes significantly to the global burden of disease. This paper reviews the available literature to examine the impact of HAP on human health, comprehensively identifies the sources of HAP, and synthesize management approaches to reducing the severity of HAP. The English language databases PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Science Direct were searched using the key terms: HAP, particulate matter, health risks, public health, pollutant sources, burden of diseases, and management approach.
According to WHO there is consistent evidence that exposure to household air pollution is a major risk factor leading to acute lower respiratory infections ALRI in children under five, and ischaemic heart disease IHD , stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD and lung cancer LC in adults. Smoke in form of particulate matter with particle diameters of less than 10 micrometers in diameter penetrate deep into the lungs. At sizes of 2. Ultrafine particles get even into the bloodstream. Exposure to particulate matter has short-term effects such as nose, throat and lung irritation, coughing, sneezing, runny nose and shortness of breath as well as more severe effects on the respiratory system such as pneumonia and asthma. Children are especially affected by ALRI.
One of our era's greatest scourges is air pollution, on account not only of its impact on climate change but also its impact on public and individual health due to increasing morbidity and mortality. There are many pollutants that are major factors in disease in humans. Among them, Particulate Matter PM , particles of variable but very small diameter, penetrate the respiratory system via inhalation, causing respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, reproductive and central nervous system dysfunctions, and cancer. Despite the fact that ozone in the stratosphere plays a protective role against ultraviolet irradiation, it is harmful when in high concentration at ground level, also affecting the respiratory and cardiovascular system. Furthermore, nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide, Volatile Organic Compounds VOCs , dioxins, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs are all considered air pollutants that are harmful to humans.
Effects of indoor air pollution on human health: A micro-level study of Aligarh City-India
Despite the magnitude of this problem, social scientists have only recently begun to pay closer attention to this issue and to test strategies for reducing IAP. In this paper, we provide a survey of the current literature on the relationship between indoor air pollution, respiratory health and economic well-being. We then discuss the available evidence on the effectiveness of popular policy prescriptions to reduce IAP within the household. Cooking and heating with solid fuels on open fires or on traditional stoves generates high levels of health-damaging pollutants, such as particulates and carbon monoxide. As women are primarily responsible for cooking, and as children often spend time with their mothers while they are engaged in cooking activities, women and young children are disproportionately affected.
Air pollution is the presence of substances in the atmosphere that are harmful to the health of humans and other living beings , or cause damage to the climate or to materials. There are different types of air pollutants, such as gases such as ammonia , carbon monoxide , sulfur dioxide , nitrous oxides , methane and chlorofluorocarbons , particulates both organic and inorganic , and biological molecules. Air pollution may cause diseases, allergies and even death to humans; it may also cause harm to other living organisms such as animals and food crops, and may damage the natural or built environment. Both human activity and natural processes can generate air pollution. Air pollution is a significant risk factor for a number of pollution-related diseases , including respiratory infections , heart disease , COPD , stroke and lung cancer.
Introduction We all face a variety of risks to our health as we go about our day-to-day lives. Driving in cars, flying in airplanes, engaging in recreational activities, and being exposed to environmental pollutants all pose varying degrees of risk.
Approach to the Problem
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