Minimally processed fruits and vegetables fundamental aspects and applications pdf

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OMB Control No. It does not create or confer any rights for or on any person and does not operate to bind FDA or the public. You can use an alternative approach if the approach satisfies the requirements of the applicable statutes and regulations.

A review on mechanisms and commercial aspects of food preservation and processing

OMB Control No. It does not create or confer any rights for or on any person and does not operate to bind FDA or the public. You can use an alternative approach if the approach satisfies the requirements of the applicable statutes and regulations.

If you want to discuss an alternative approach, contact the FDA staff responsible for implementing this guidance. If you cannot identify the appropriate FDA staff, call the appropriate telephone number listed on the title page of this guidance. The Federal Government provides advice on healthful eating, including consuming a diet rich in a variety of fruits and vegetables, through the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the related MyPyramid food guidance system Ref.

In response, per capita consumption data show that Americans are eating more fresh produce Ref. As the fresh-cut produce market continues to grow, the processors of such produce are faced with the challenge of processing an increasing variety and volume of products in a manner that ensures the safety of this produce. From to , seventy-two foodborne illness outbreaks were associated with the consumption of fresh produce.

Of these produce related outbreaks, 25 percent 18 outbreaks implicated fresh-cut produce Ref. Many factors may play a role in the incidence and reporting of foodborne illness outbreaks that implicate fresh produce, such as an aging population that is susceptible to foodborne illness, an increase in global trade, a more complex supply chain, improved surveillance and detection of foodborne illness, improvements in epidemiological investigation, and increasingly better methods to identify pathogens Refs.

Processing fresh produce into fresh-cut products increases the risk of bacterial growth and contamination by breaking the natural exterior barrier of the produce Ref. The release of plant cellular fluids when produce is chopped or shredded provides a nutritive medium in which pathogens, if present, can survive or grow Ref.

Thus, if pathogens are present when the surface integrity of the fruit or vegetable is broken, pathogen growth can occur and contamination may spread. The processing of fresh produce without proper sanitation procedures in the processing environment increases the potential for contamination by pathogens see Appendix B, "Foodborne Pathogens Associated with Fresh Fruits and Vegetables.

In addition, the degree of handling and product mixing common to many fresh-cut processing operations can provide opportunities for contamination and for spreading contamination through a large volume of product. The potential for pathogens to survive or grow is increased by the high moisture and nutrient content of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables, the absence of a lethal process e. Importantly, however, fresh-cut produce processing has the capability to reduce the risk of contamination by placing the preparation of fresh-cut produce in a controlled, sanitary facility.

This guidance is intended for all fresh-cut produce processing firms, both domestic firms and firms importing or offering fresh-cut product for import into the U. This guidance does not set binding requirements or identify all possible preventive measures to minimize microbial food safety hazards.

We recommend that each fresh-cut produce processor assess the recommendations in this guidance and then tailor its food safety practices to the processor's particular operation. Alternative approaches that minimize microbial food safety hazards may be used so long as they are consistent with applicable laws and regulations.

This guidance primarily addresses microbiological hazards and appropriate control measures for such hazards. However, some chapters in the guidance discuss physical and chemical hazards. FDA's guidance documents, including this guidance, do not establish legally enforceable responsibilities. Instead, guidances describe the Agency's current thinking on a topic and should be viewed only as recommendations, unless specific regulatory or statutory requirements are cited.

The use of the word should in Agency guidances means that something is suggested or recommended, but not required. Fresh-cut Produce: This guidance covers fresh-cut fruits and vegetables that have been minimally processed e. Examples of fresh-cut products are shredded lettuce, sliced tomatoes, salad mixes raw vegetable salads , peeled baby carrots, broccoli florets, cauliflower florets, cut celery stalks, shredded cabbage, cut melon, sliced pineapple, and sectioned grapefruit.

As the fresh-cut produce market continues to evolve, the scope of this guidance may need to be modified to address new or novel types of products. Section r defines a raw agricultural commodity as any food "in its raw or natural state…. Section gg of the Act defines a "processed food" as "any food other than a raw agricultural commodity and includes any raw agricultural commodity that has been subject to processing, such as canning, cooking, freezing, dehydrating, or milling.

Thus, fresh-cut fruits and vegetables are appropriately considered "processed foods" and are subject to the CGMPs in Part The conclusion that fresh-cut produce are not RACs is consistent with the preamble to the proposed revisions to the CGMP regulation 44 FR at , June 8, , which states, when discussing the exclusion for RACs, that such products may be excluded because "food from those commodities is… brought into compliance with the Act at the later stages of manufacturing, processing, packing, or holding.

FDA believes that the recommendations in this guidance complement the CGMPs by suggesting more specific food safety practices for processors of fresh-cut produce. One strength of HACCP is its proactive approach to prevent food contamination rather than trying to identify and control contamination after it has occurred.

FDA encourages fresh-cut produce processors to take a proactive role in minimizing microbial food safety hazards potentially associated with fresh-cut produce. We recommend that fresh-cut processors consider a preventive control program to build safety into the processing operations for fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. Awareness of the common risk factors discussed in this guidance and implementation of preventive controls determined by a firm to be appropriate to its individual operations will enhance the safety of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables.

FDA also recommends that processors encourage the adoption of safe practices See Chapter IV by their partners throughout the supply chain, including produce growers, packers, distributors, transporters, importers, exporters, retailers, food service operators, and consumers, to ensure that the processor's efforts will be enhanced. This guidance begins with a discussion of primary production and harvesting of fresh produce in Chapter IV and continues with recommendations for fresh-cut processing in four areas-- 1 personnel health and hygiene, 2 training, 3 building and equipment, and 4 sanitation operations.

Following this discussion, the guidance covers fresh-cut produce production and processing controls from product specification to storage and transport. The final chapters provide recommendations on recordkeeping and on recalls and tracebacks. Adequate quality water: The determination of adequate quality water is based on its use, where adequate quality water for one purpose is not necessarily adequate for another purpose.

Fresh fruits and vegetables: fresh produce that is likely to be sold to consumers in an unprocessed i. Fresh produce may be intact, such as whole strawberries, carrots, radishes, or tomatoes, or cut from roots or stems during harvesting, such as celery, broccoli, lettuce, or cauliflower.

Fresh-cut fruits and vegetables or fresh-cut produce: fresh fruits and vegetables for human consumption that have been minimally processed and altered in form by peeling, slicing, chopping, shredding, coring, or trimming, with or without washing, prior to being packaged for use by the consumer or a retail establishment e.

Fresh-cut produce does not require additional preparation, processing, or cooking before consumption, with the possible exception of washing or the addition of salad dressing, seasoning or other accompaniments. Food hazard: a biological, chemical, or physical agent that is reasonably likely to cause human illness or injury in the absence of its control. Processing water: water that is used for post-harvest handling of produce, such as washing, cooling, waxing, or product transport.

Standard Operating Procedures SOPs : Procedures established by an operator for the day-to-day activities involved in the production of safe and wholesome food. Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures SSOPs : Procedures established by an operator for the day-to-day sanitation activities involved in the production of safe and wholesome food. In general, anything that comes into contact with fresh produce has the potential to contaminate it. Fresh produce may become contaminated at any point along the farm-to-table continuum.

The major source of microbial contamination of fresh produce is indirect or direct contact with animal or human feces. Once fresh produce has been contaminated, removing or killing the microbial pathogens is very difficult. Prevention of microbial contamination at all steps in the farm-to-table continuum is preferable to treatment to eliminate contamination after it has occurred.

On the farm, potential contamination avenues include contact with untreated manure used as a soil amendment, contaminated water, infected workers, or conditions in the field or packing facility such as unclean containers and tools used in harvesting and packing, and the presence of animals. In transport, conditions such as unclean floors and walls of the transport vehicle and unclean containers can contribute to contamination with pathogens. Thus, it is important that fresh-cut produce processors be aware of the conditions under which their fresh produce is grown, harvested, packed, and transported.

Furthermore, knowing your suppliers and what they are doing to minimize risk of contamination is prudent. Potential sources of contamination identified in the GAPs Guide are biosolids and manure, water, field workers, equipment, and containers. We recommend the following practices to ensure that incoming fresh produce is safe and suitable for processing into fresh-cut product:. This section provides recommendations regarding personnel of an establishment that processes fresh-cut produce.

The recommendations address two major areas: worker health and hygiene, and training. Workers can carry microbial pathogens on their skin, in their hair, on their hands, and in their digestive systems or respiratory tracts. Unless workers understand and follow basic food protection principles, they may unintentionally contaminate fresh produce and fresh-cut produce, food contact surfaces, water supplies, or other workers, and thereby, create the opportunity to transmit foodborne illness.

Basic food protection practices related to worker health and hygiene fall into two categories, disease control and cleanliness. FDA recommends that employees with direct access such as processing, storage, and transport workers and indirect access such as equipment operators, buyers, and pest control operators to the production areas of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables follow good hygienic practices for maintaining personal health and hygiene in order to protect the product from contamination.

FDA recommends the following practices to prevent food, food contact surfaces, and food packaging materials from becoming contaminated with microbial pathogens from an employee with an infectious illness or wound:.

We recommend that firms train employees to report to their supervisor any information about personal health status or activities relating to diseases transmitted through food. Such information would include reporting an active case of illness. FDA recommends that supervisors be trained to recognize the symptoms of active infectious disease; these symptoms are vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps.

We recommend that employees with these symptoms be excluded from any operations which may be expected to result in contamination of fresh or fresh-cut produce or food contact surfaces, including equipment and utensils, until the medical condition is resolved.

Covering cuts and wounds with a suitable water proof dressing when workers with such injuries are permitted to continue working. We recommend that firms maintain an adequate supply of bandages that provide protection from any wound. A wound containing pus such as an open and draining boil or other infected wound that is located on a part of the body that could contact fresh produce or fresh-cut produce, processing equipment, or tools, presents a risk of contaminating fresh-cut produce.

When a worker in the processing area needs a bandage, we recommend that the firm consider using a bandage that is detectable by a metal detector if there is a metal detector in the processing line. Using detectable bandages will allow the facility to detect when a bandage has fallen into the processing line so that corrective action can be taken.

We also recommend that a worker with a wound that cannot be covered to prevent contact with fresh produce or fresh-cut produce, processing equipment, or tools not work with any aspect of fresh produce or fresh-cut produce, processing equipment or tools until the wound has healed.

FDA recommends that employees use the following food protection practices to prevent fresh or fresh-cut produce or food contact surfaces including equipment or utensils from becoming contaminated as a result of poor employee hygiene or inappropriate employee conduct:.

FDA recommends that employees wash their hands before beginning work and after engaging in any activity that may contaminate their hands. Improperly used gloves may become a vehicle for spreading pathogens. The use of gloves does not lessen the need for, or importance of, hand-washing and other proper hygiene practices.

We recommend that if gloves are used in a facility, the firm develop guidelines for their safe use, sanitation, and changing. FDA recommends that employees wear clean clothes and any additional outer items e. FDA recommends that employees in food processing areas not engage in activities that could contaminate food, such as eating, using tobacco, chewing gum, or spitting.

Training every employee about the CGMPs and preventive controls will help to eliminate or minimize contamination of fresh-cut produce. We recommend that education and training programs be designed to help employees understand what is expected of them and why what is expected is important. We also recommend that company expectations for proper employee hygiene and food protection techniques be clearly communicated to new employees before starting employment and reaffirmed during periodic training programs.

There are many materials available to firms to support employee training. We recommend that firms consider whether the language of the training and training materials is appropriate for the employees. Useful materials and information may be found at the Fight BAC! Training employees before they begin work with fresh or fresh-cut produce, at regular intervals, and at a minimum annually provides employees with important information about food safety best practices and company policies.

We recommend that firms consider teaching, in the same training session, only a small number of employees at or near their workstation, if the environment permits it, for short periods of time, such as minutes per session. The sessions could cover only one topic at a time and could be targeted to specific food safety concerns of that workstation. For example, washing station employees could be trained about appropriate antimicrobial chemical usage, and packaging station employees could be trained about proper handling and cleanliness of boxes and totes.

We recommend refresher or follow-up training to reinforce the initial training. Training a few employees at a time can be an effective way to provide refresher training with the least disruption to work.

Minimally Processed Fruits And Vegetables Fundamental Aspects And Applications 1st Edition

Metrics details. Food preservation involves different food processing steps to maintain food quality at a desired level so that maximum benefits and nutrition values can be achieved. Food preservation methods include growing, harvesting, processing, packaging, and distribution of foods. The key objectives of food preservation are to overcome inappropriate planning in agriculture, to produce value-added products, and to provide variation in diet. Food spoilage could be caused by a wide range of chemical and biochemical reactions. To impede chemical and microbial deterioration of foods, conventional and primitive techniques of preserving foods like drying, chilling, freezing, and pasteurization have been fostered. In recent years, the techniques to combat these spoilages are becoming sophisticated and have gradually altered to a highly interdisciplinary science.

By publishing your paper in our journal you are also granting it the copyright of the information that it contains. Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer. Gonzales-Gonzales N. Quintero-Ramos Keywords: antibacterial activity, chitosan, molecular weights, essentials oils. References Alves, V. Design of biodegradable composite films for food packaging.

Сожаление. Снова и снова тянется его рука, поблескивает кольцо, деформированные пальцы тычутся в лица склонившихся над ним незнакомцев. Он что-то им говорит. Но что. Дэвид на экране застыл в глубокой задумчивости. - Разница, - бормотал он себе под нос.

Bacterial Stressors in Minimally Processed Food

Это пугало Хейла. Он понимал, что времени у него. Агенты могут появиться в любую минуту.

В этом освещении его лицо казалось мертвенно-бледным, безжизненным. - Сьюзан, - сказал.  - Дай мне двадцать минут, чтобы уничтожить файлы лаборатории систем безопасности.

Фонтейна эти слова озадачили. - Вы хотите сказать, что Танкадо не искал глазами Халохота. - Да, сэр.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration

 Коммандер, - напомнила Сьюзан, - Хейл однажды уже чуть не угробил нас - с Попрыгунчиком. Танкадо имел основания ему верить. Стратмор замялся, не зная, что ответить.

Food preservation

Возможно ли, что проблема шифровалки каким-то образом связана с вирусом. - Мидж… я уже говорил… - Да или нет: мог в ТРАНСТЕКСТ проникнуть вирус. Джабба шумно вздохнул. - Нет, Мидж.

Лежа в кровати с балдахином, она смотрела на него и знала, что ей нужен именно. Навсегда. Ее завораживала глубина его темно-зеленых глаз, и она не могла отвести от них взгляд. В этот момент где-то вдали раздался оглушительный колокольный звон.

Background

На мгновение Беккер задумался. Потом изобразил смущенную улыбку. - Неужели это так заметно. - Как ее зовут? - Женщина лукаво подмигнула. - Меган, - сказал он печально. - Я полагаю, что у вашей подруги есть и фамилия.

Со своего места Сьюзан могла видеть всю комнату, а также сквозь стекло одностороннего обзора ТРАНСТЕКСТ, возвышавшийся в самом центре шифровалки. Сьюзан посмотрела на часы. Она ждет уже целый час. Очевидно, Анонимная рассылка Америки не слишком торопится пересылать почту Северной Дакоты. Сьюзан тяжело вздохнула. Несмотря на все попытки забыть утренний разговор с Дэвидом, он никак не выходил у нее из головы.

 Так почему он не отключит эту свою игрушку. Вдруг это вирус.

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