Routledge philosophy guidebook to kripke and naming and necessity pdf
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- Routledge Philosophy GuideBook to Kripke and Naming and Necessity
- Rigid Designators
- Routledge Philosophy GuideBook to - USP
David Hume was one of the most important British philosophers of the eighteenth century. The first part of his Treatise on Human Nature is a seminal work in philosophy. He is the author of Hume on Knowledge , and Personal Identity second edition , both available from Routledge.
Routledge Philosophy GuideBook to Kripke and Naming and Necessity
As such it presents particular challenges for theories of meaning , and it has become a central problem in analytic philosophy. The common-sense view was originally formulated by John Stuart Mill in A System of Logic , where he defines it as "a word that answers the purpose of showing what thing it is that we are talking about but not of telling anything about it". Gottlob Frege pointed out that proper names may apply to imaginary and [ ambiguous ] nonexistent entities, without becoming meaningless, and he showed that sometimes more than one proper name may identify the same entity without having the same sense , so that the phrase "Homer believed the morning star was the evening star" could be meaningful and not tautological in spite of the fact that the morning star and the evening star identifies the same referent. This example became known as Frege's puzzle and is a central issue in the theory of proper names. Bertrand Russell was the first to propose a descriptivist theory of names , which held that a proper name refers not to a referent, but to a set of true propositions that uniquely describe a referent — for example, "Aristotle" refers to "the teacher of Alexander the Great". Rejecting descriptivism, Saul Kripke and Keith Donnellan instead advanced causal-historical theories of reference , which hold that names come to be associated with individual referents because social groups who link the name to its reference in a naming event e. Today [ vague ] a direct reference theory is common, which holds that proper names refer to their referents without attributing any additional information, connotative or of sense, about them.
A rigid designator designates the same object in all possible worlds in which that object exists and never designates anything else. This technical concept in the philosophy of language has critical consequences felt throughout philosophy. In their fullest generality, the consequences are metaphysical and epistemological. Whether a statement's designators are rigid or non-rigid may determine whether it is necessarily true, necessarily false, or contingent. This metaphysical status is sometimes out of accord with what one would expect given a statement's apparent epistemological status as a posteriori or a priori. Statements affected include central ones under investigation in philosophical subdisciplines from the philosophy of science to mind to ethics and aesthetics.
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The traditional descriptivist distinction between the sense and reference of a proper name came under attack in the twentieth century. Kripke and Putnam attack the idea that the sense of a name determines its reference and serves as a mode of presentation for its reference. They generalize their arguments to natural kind terms too. We place Putnam somewhere between Quine and Kripke on meaning, necessity, and analyticity. We close with an examination of the central use of philosophical intuition in these arguments and think Quine would find much to like in the rise of experimental philosophy. Keywords: W.
Saul Kripke is one of the most important philosophers of the twentieth century. His most celebrated work, Naming and Necessity, makes arguably the most.
Routledge Philosophy GuideBook to - USP
Invited to survey my work in Philosophy of Education related to the later philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein, I first investigate how Wittgenstein became a significant thinker in this field. One case is rule-deviation within curriculum reforms, where instead of standardization and consensus we find multiple interpretations of curricular rules. Another vexing question is how we judge with some degree of certainty the efficacy or sanity of various pedagogical practices, as in weighing the merits of discovery versus fundamentals approaches in math training. I should not like my writing to spare other people the trouble of thinking. But, if possible, to stimulate someone to thoughts of his own.
I still stop breathing every time I think of it. They conceived of a grand opera that would reach out to an audience of unprecedented scale. A spectacle that everyone would love, written in popular style. By the morning we could be seriously rich. There was so much neon the street lighting was superfluous.
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