Anatomy and physiology terminology pdf

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anatomy and physiology terminology pdf

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Words in science are often used in different ways from ordinary English.

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List of common anatomical and physiological terms

Anatomists and health care providers use terminology that can be bewildering to the uninitiated; however, the purpose of this language is not to confuse, but rather to increase precision and reduce medical errors.

Or is it at the base of the hand? Is it on the palm-side or back-side? By using precise anatomical terminology, we eliminate ambiguity.

Anatomical terms are derived from ancient Greek and Latin words. Because these languages are no longer used in everyday conversation, the meaning of their words do not change.

Anatomical terms are made up of roots, prefixes, and suffixes. The root of a term often refers to an organ, tissue, or condition, whereas the prefix or suffix often describes the root. To further increase precision, anatomists standardize the way in which they view the body. The upper limbs are held out to each side, and the palms of the hands face forward as illustrated in Figure 1. Using this standard position reduces confusion. It does not matter how the body being described is oriented, the terms are used as if it is in anatomical position.

A body that is lying down is described as either prone or supine. Prone describes a face-down orientation, and supine describes a face up orientation.

These terms are sometimes used in describing the position of the body during specific physical examinations or surgical procedures. Certain directional anatomical terms appear throughout this and any other anatomy textbook Figure 1.

These terms are essential for describing the relative locations of different body structures. Commit these terms to memory to avoid confusion when you are studying or describing the locations of particular body parts. A section is a two-dimensional surface of a three-dimensional structure that has been cut.

We call these scans. Body sections and scans can be correctly interpreted, only if the viewer understands the plane along which the section was made. A plane is an imaginary, two-dimensional surface that passes through the body. There are three planes commonly referred to in anatomy and medicine, as illustrated in Figure 1.

The body maintains its internal organization by means of membranes, sheaths, and other structures that separate compartments. The main cavities of the body include the cranial, thoracic and abdominopelvic also known as the peritoneal cavities.

The cranial bones create the cranial cavity where the brain sits. The thoracic cavity is enclosed by the rib cage and contains the lungs and the heart, which is located in the mediastinum. Although no membrane physically divides the abdominopelvic cavity, it can be useful to distinguish between the abdominal cavity, the division that houses the digestive organs , and the pelvic cavity, the division that houses the organs of reproduction.

The more detailed regional approach subdivides the cavity with one horizontal line immediately inferior to the ribs and one immediately superior to the pelvis, and two vertical lines drawn as if dropped from the midpoint of each clavicle collarbone.

There are nine resulting regions. Ancient Greek and Latin words are used to build anatomical terms. In which direction would an MRI scanner move to produce sequential images of the body in the frontal plane, and in which direction would an MRI scanner move to produce sequential images of the body in the sagittal plane?

Again, if the body were supine or prone, to produce sagittal sections, the scanner would move from left to right or from right to left to divide the body lengthwise into left and right portions. Skip to content Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Use appropriate anatomical terminology to identify key body structures, body regions, and directions in the body Demonstrate the anatomical position Describe the human body using directional and regional terms Identify three planes most commonly used in the study of anatomy Distinguish between major body cavities.

Figure 1. The regions of the body are labeled in boldface. Directional Terms Certain directional anatomical terms appear throughout this and any other anatomy textbook Figure 1.

Anterior or ventral describes the front or direction toward the front of the body. The toes are anterior to the foot. Posterior or dorsal describes the back or direction toward the back of the body. The popliteus is posterior to the patella. Superior or cranial describes a position above or higher than another part of the body proper. The orbits are superior to the oris. Inferior or caudal describes a position below or lower than another part of the body proper; near or toward the tail in humans, the coccyx, or lowest part of the spinal column.

The pelvis is inferior to the abdomen. Lateral describes the side or direction toward the side of the body. The thumb pollex is lateral to the digits. Medial describes the middle or direction toward the middle of the body. The hallux is the medial toe. Proximal describes a position in a limb that is nearer to the point of attachment or the trunk of the body. The brachium is proximal to the antebrachium. Distal describes a position in a limb that is farther from the point of attachment or the trunk of the body.

The crus is distal to the femur. Superficial describes a position closer to the surface of the body. The skin is superficial to the bones. Deep describes a position farther from the surface of the body.

The brain is deep to the skull. Body Planes A section is a two-dimensional surface of a three-dimensional structure that has been cut. The sagittal plane divides the body or an organ vertically into right and left sides. If this vertical plane runs directly down the middle of the body, it is called the midsagittal or median plane.

If it divides the body into unequal right and left sides, it is called a parasagittal plane or less commonly a longitudinal section. The frontal plane divides the body or an organ into an anterior front portion and a posterior rear portion. The frontal plane is often referred to as a coronal plane. Transverse planes produce images referred to as cross sections.

Body Cavities The body maintains its internal organization by means of membranes, sheaths, and other structures that separate compartments. Chapter Review Ancient Greek and Latin words are used to build anatomical terms.

Critical Thinking Questions In which direction would an MRI scanner move to produce sequential images of the body in the frontal plane, and in which direction would an MRI scanner move to produce sequential images of the body in the sagittal plane? Previous: 1. Next: 1. Share This Book Share on Twitter.

Anatomy and Physiology Questions

Anatomical terminology is a form of scientific terminology used by anatomists , zoologists , and health professionals such as doctors. Anatomical terminology uses many unique terms, suffixes , and prefixes deriving from Ancient Greek and Latin. These terms can be confusing to those unfamiliar with them, but can be more precise, reducing ambiguity and errors. Also, since these anatomical terms are not used in everyday conversation, their meanings are less likely to change, and less likely to be misinterpreted. To illustrate how inexact day-to-day language can be: a scar "above the wrist" could be located on the forearm two or three inches away from the hand or at the base of the hand; and could be on the palm-side or back-side of the arm. By using precise anatomical terminology such ambiguity is eliminated.

Anatomists and health care providers use terminology that can be bewildering to the uninitiated. However, the purpose of this language is not to confuse, but rather to increase precision and reduce medical errors. Or is it at the base of the hand? Is it on the palm-side or back-side? By using precise anatomical terminology, we eliminate ambiguity.


Anatomical position: body is erect, feet together, palms face forward and the thumbs point away from the body. Page 3. Directional Terms. • Superior: means the.


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Anatomists and health care providers use terminology that can be bewildering to the uninitiated. However, the purpose of this language is not to confuse, but rather to increase precision and reduce medical errors. Or is it at the base of the hand? Is it on the palm-side or back-side?

In our previous courses, you may have noticed a number of complex anatomy and physiology terms getting tossed around. Our complete medical terminology list will help you learn some of the most common anatomical and surgical terms by looking at prefixes, suffixes, and roots. Here are a few of the most common. There are also a number of positional and directional medical terms that are not suffixes or prefixes, but are instead standalone words.

It is an old science, having its beginnings in prehistoric times. Anatomy and physiology , which study the structure and function of organisms and their parts respectively, make a natural pair of related disciplines , and are often studied together. Human anatomy is one of the essential basic sciences that are applied in medicine. The discipline of anatomy is divided into macroscopic and microscopic. Macroscopic anatomy, or gross anatomy , is the examination of an animal's body parts using unaided eyesight.

Arnold's Glossary of Anatomy

Anatomists and health care providers use terminology that can be bewildering to the uninitiated; however, the purpose of this language is not to confuse, but rather to increase precision and reduce medical errors. Or is it at the base of the hand? Is it on the palm-side or back-side? By using precise anatomical terminology, we eliminate ambiguity. Anatomical terms are derived from ancient Greek and Latin words.

Also, test your knowledge in medical terminology. Read these instructions before taking this practice exam. This type of fracture is known as which of the following?


PDF | On Jan 5, , Johar M Ashfaque published The Very Basics of Anatomy and Physiology for Clinical Coding - Root Words, Prefixes, Suffixes & Glossary of Terms | Find, read and cite all the research you need on.


2.10: Learn Medical Terminology and Human Anatomy

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The study of animal anatomy and physiology involves many terms which are not commonly used in daily communication. Abdominal cavity: in vertebrates that part of the body cavity containing the digestive organs, and in mammals separated from the thoracic cavity by the diaphragm. Absorption: the passage of material into a cell; the passage of nutrients from the intestines into the blood vessels associated with them. Acclimation: the habituation of an organism or animal to another climate i. Achondroplasia: shortening of long bones of the limbs caused by a disturbance in the ossification process bone formation during growth of the bone. Acid-base balance: the maintenance of the correct ratio of acids to bases in the blood to maintain the correct pH. Aerobic: in oxygen — usually refers to organic chemical reactions or to microorganisms that operate in the presence of oxygen.

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