Gerund phrase and infinitive phrase pdf

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gerund phrase and infinitive phrase pdf

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Noun Phrase Gerund Worksheet

If the group of related words does contain a subject and verb, it is considered a clause. There are several different kinds of phrases. Understanding how they are constructed and how they function within a sentence can bolster a writer's confidence in writing sentences that are sound in structure and various in form.

A noun phrase comprises a noun obviously and any associated modifiers:. The modifiers that accompany a noun can take any number of forms and combination of forms: adjectives, of course "the tall and brilliant professor" ; a participial phrase "the road following the edge of the frozen lake" ; an infinitive phrase "the first man to walk on the moon" ; a modifying clause "the presentation that he had made the day before" ; and prepositional phrases "the building next to the lodge, over by the highway".

It is possible, however, for a noun phrase to be broken, to become what we call discontinuous. In our first example, for instance noun phrase in dark red ,.

Here are some other examples:. Clearly, there is nothing inherently wrong with a discontinuous noun phrase. One very good reason for a discontinuous noun phrase is to achieve a balance between a subject and its predicate:.

Longman Group: London. One thing you want to watch out for with noun phrases is the long compound noun phrase. But when we create a long string of such attributive nouns or modifiers, we create difficulties:. The difficulty we have here is knowing what is modifying what. Also, the reader keeps expecting the string to end, so the energy of the sentence and our attention dwindles into a series of false endings. Such phrases are a particular temptation in technical writing. Usually, the solution to an overly extended compound noun phrase is to take the last noun of the series and liberate it from the rest of the string putting it at the beginning of the sentence and then to turn at least one of the modifying nouns into a prepositional phrase:.

This is one situation in which making a sentence longer is probably an advantage. A vocative is always treated as a parenthetical element and is thus set off from the rest of the sentence with a comma or a pair of commas if it appears within the flow of a sentence. When vocatives are proper nouns usually the case , they are also referred to as "nouns of address. Do not, however, get into the habit of throwing commas at people's names; unless the name refers to someone who is actually being addressed, it is not a vocative and will not necessarily be parenthetical:.

Longman Group: Essex, England. Used with permission; examples our own. A prepositional phrase consists of a preposition , a noun or pronoun that serves as the object of the preposition, and, more often than not, an adjective or two that modifies the object. Ernest Hemingway apparently fell in love with the rhythms of his prepositional phrases at the beginning of his short story "Hills Like White Elephants":.

Prepositional phrases usually tell when or where: "in forty minutes," "in the sun, against the side, etc. A prepositional phrase at the beginning of a sentence constitutes an introductory modifier , which is usually a signal for a comma. However, unless an introductory prepositional phrase is unusually long, we seldom need to follow it with a comma.

You may have learned that ending a sentence with a preposition is a serious breach of grammatical etiquette. It doesn't take a grammarian to spot a sentence-ending preposition, so this is an easy rule to get caught up on!

Although it is often easy to remedy the offending preposition, sometimes it isn't, and repair efforts sometimes result in a clumsy sentence. Based on shaky historical precedent, the rule itself is a latecomer to the rules of writing. Those who dislike the rule are fond of recalling Churchill's rejoinder: An appositive is a re-naming or amplification of a word that immediately precedes it. An ap positive, then is the opposite of an op positive.

Frequently another kind of phrase will serve in apposition. The best exercise, walking briskly , is also the least expensive. Absolute phrases do not directly connect to or modify any specific word in the rest of the sentence; instead, they modify the entire sentence, adding information.

They are always treated as parenthetical elements and are set off from the rest of the sentence with a comma or a pair of commas sometimes by a dash or pair of dashes. Notice that absolute phrases contain a subject which is often modified by a participle , but not a true finite verb. When the participle of an absolute phrase is a form of to be , such as being or having been , the participle is often left out but understood.

Another kind of absolute phrase is found after a modified noun; it adds a focusing detail or point of focus to the idea of the main clause. This kind of absolute phrase can take the form of a prepositional phrase, an adjective phrase, or a noun phrase. It is not unusual for the information supplied in the absolute phrase to be the most important element in the sentence.

In fact, in descriptive prose, the telling details will often be wrapped into a sentence in the form of an absolute phrase:. It might be useful to review the material on Misplaced Modifiers because it is important not to confuse an absolute phrase with a misplaced modifier.

Infinitive phrases can act as adjectives, adverbs, and nouns. Gerunds, verbals that end in -ing and that act as nouns, frequently are associated with modifiers and complements in a gerund phrase. These phrases function as units and can do anything that a noun can do.

Notice that other phrases, especially prepositional phrases, are frequently part of the gerund phrase. Reviewing the general uses of gerunds and infinitives might not be a bad idea. Click HERE. Present participles, verbals ending in -ing , and past participles, verbals that end in -ed for regular verbs or other forms for irregular verbs , are combined with complements and modifiers and become part of important phrasal structures.

Participial phrases always act as adjectives. When they begin a sentence, they are often set off by a comma as an introductory modifier ; otherwise, participial phrases will be set off by commas if they are parenthetical elements.

The image-map photo of the flower garden is from the Website of White Flower Farm in Litchfield, Connecticut, and is the copyrighted property of White Flower Farm, which has graciously given us permission to use the photo.

Eason and to Joseph M. NOUN PHRASE A noun phrase comprises a noun obviously and any associated modifiers: The long and winding road A noun phrase any associated modifiers The modifiers that accompany a noun can take any number of forms and combination of forms: adjectives, of course "the tall and brilliant professor" ; a participial phrase "the road following the edge of the frozen lake" ; an infinitive phrase "the first man to walk on the moon" ; a modifying clause "the presentation that he had made the day before" ; and prepositional phrases "the building next to the lodge, over by the highway".

In our first example, for instance noun phrase in dark red , Several accidents have been reported involving passengers falling from trains. Here are some other examples: A rumor circulated among the staff that he was being promoted to Vice President.

One very good reason for a discontinuous noun phrase is to achieve a balance between a subject and its predicate: The story is told that he was once a soldier in French Foreign Legion. But when we create a long string of such attributive nouns or modifiers, we create difficulties: People who author web-pages have become aware of what is now known as the uniform resource locator protocol problem.

Usually, the solution to an overly extended compound noun phrase is to take the last noun of the series and liberate it from the rest of the string putting it at the beginning of the sentence and then to turn at least one of the modifying nouns into a prepositional phrase: The problem with the protocol of uniform resource locators is now recognized by people who author web-pages as. Do not, however, get into the habit of throwing commas at people's names; unless the name refers to someone who is actually being addressed, it is not a vocative and will not necessarily be parenthetical: He told Jorge to turn the boat around.

Jorge, turn the boat around Quirk and Greenbaum enumerate four different kinds of vocatives: Single names, with or without a title: Jorge, Mr. Valdez, Dr. Valdez, Uncle, Grandma. Valdez , will you please address the graduates? The personal pronoun you not a polite form of address : You , put down that gun! The second person pronoun is sometimes combined with other words but the result is often rather rude and is never used in formal prose ["You over there, hurry up!

Quick, anybody! Give me a hand! Appellatives what we call people of endearment "Darling," "Sweetheart," "My dear," "Love" Come sit next to me, my dear. Nominal clause: Whoever is making that noise , stop it now. Ernest Hemingway apparently fell in love with the rhythms of his prepositional phrases at the beginning of his short story "Hills Like White Elephants": The hills across the valley of the Ebro were long and white. On this side there was no shade and no trees and the station was between two lines of rails in the sun.

Close against the side of the station there was the warm shadow of the building and a curtain, made of strings of bamboo beads , hung across the open door into the bar , to keep out flies. The American and the girl with him sat at a table in the shade , outside the building. It was very hot and the express from Barcelona would come in forty minutes.

It stopped at this junction for two minutes and went on to Madrid. My favorite teacher, a fine chess player in her own right , has won several state-level tournaments. Their reputation as winners secured by victory , the New York Liberty charged into the semifinals. The season nearly finished , Rebecca Lobo and Sophie Witherspoon emerged as true leaders. The two superstars signed autographs into the night, their faces beaming happily. The season [being] over , they were mobbed by fans in Times Square.

The old firefighter stood over the smoking ruins, his senses alert to any sign of another flare-up. His subordinates, their faces sweat-streaked and smudged with ash , leaned heavily against the firetruck. In fact, in descriptive prose, the telling details will often be wrapped into a sentence in the form of an absolute phrase: Coach Nykesha strolled onto the court, her arms akimbo and a large silver whistle clenched between her teeth.

The new recruits stood in one corner of the gym, their uniforms stiff and ill fitting, their faces betraying their anxiety. A noun phrase can also exist as an absolute phrase: Your best friends , where are they now, when you need them? Her plan to subsidize child care won wide acceptance among urban politicians.

Cramming for tests is not a good study strategy. The stone steps, having been worn down by generations of students, needed to be replaced.

Verbal Constructions

This is present simple, but it contains a gerund. Why would I use a gerund phrase when I write? A gerund phrase is a present participle and its modifiers that acts like a noun. A gerund phrase is a phrase that consists of a gerund, its object, and any modifiers. Any action verb can be made into a gerund. A gerund phrase is a phrase that begins with a gerund, and functions as a noun.

Identify the grammatical elements in the following sentences. What are the constructions in italics. What is underlined. Even though I love Johnny Depp, beautiful and mysterious, the sheer acting talent of Patrick. Daja, a natural as a metalworker, could h and le red hot iron, manipulating it into required. Johnny Depp is masterful in portraying, beautiful and mysterious, odd characters like Edward. They are when the —ing form of a verb works.

A gerund is one of three classes of words called verbals — words based on verbs and expressing an action or a state of being but serving another grammatical function. The other two are participles and infinitives. A gerund, which functions as a noun, can consist of a single word or a phrase. Subject Gardening is my favorite hobby. Gardening is normally a verb, but here it is the name of an activity. Gardening in the summertime is a challenge because of the heat. The gerund is followed by a modifying adverbial phrase, forming a gerund phrase.


sentence. (f) I don't understand the need to take a. Noun Complement: Noun complements explain ten-minute break.


Appositive phrases, Gerund phrases and Infinitive phrases PDF

Some verbs can be followed by either an infinitive or an -ing form. Escolar Q. Creepster Answers.

If the group of related words does contain a subject and verb, it is considered a clause. There are several different kinds of phrases. Understanding how they are constructed and how they function within a sentence can bolster a writer's confidence in writing sentences that are sound in structure and various in form.

A verbal is a word formed from a verb but functioning as a different part of speech. A gerund is a verbal ending in - ing that functions as a noun. In the example below, the gerund phrase renames the subject, this. Even though is cooking and was scratching end in - ing , they are not gerunds because they are used as predicate verbs, not as nouns.

4 Types of Gerunds and Gerund Phrases

Participial phrases act as adjectives, serving to modify nouns. A participial phrase consists of a participle together with its modifiers and compliments. A participial phrase is a participle and all of the modifiers that go with it. See more ideas about Parts of speech, Participial phrases, English grammar. Examples: walking tour eaten hamburger cooked food baked beans Directions: Please underline each participle in the … I was sitting on the ground in a shady corner. This video focuses on the participial phrases that are set off by commas.

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[Both the adjective loud and the adjective phrase of my alarm modify the gerund ringing, which is the subject of the sentence.] Like verbs, gerunds may also be.


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