Nervous system notes anatomy and physiology pdf

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nervous system notes anatomy and physiology pdf

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The nervous system is a complex network of nerves and nerve cells neurons that carry signals or messages to and from the brain and spinal cord to different parts of the body. It is made up of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system CNS is made up of the brain and spinal cord.

12.1 Structure and Function of the Nervous System

Nervous system , organized group of cells specialized for the conduction of electrochemical stimuli from sensory receptors through a network to the site at which a response occurs. All living organisms are able to detect changes within themselves and in their environments. Changes in the external environment include those of light , temperature , sound , motion, and odour , while changes in the internal environment include those in the position of the head and limbs as well as in the internal organs. Once detected, these internal and external changes must be analyzed and acted upon in order to survive. As life on Earth evolved and the environment became more complex, the survival of organisms depended upon how well they could respond to changes in their surroundings. One factor necessary for survival was a speedy reaction or response.

The Central Nervous System

The brain and the spinal cord are the central nervous system, and they represent the main organs of the nervous system. The spinal cord is a single structure, whereas the adult brain is described in terms of four major regions: the cerebrum, the diencephalon, the brain stem, and the cerebellum. The regulation of homeostasis is governed by a specialized region in the brain. The coordination of reflexes depends on the integration of sensory and motor pathways in the spinal cord. The iconic gray mantle of the human brain, which appears to make up most of the mass of the brain, is the cerebrum [link]. The wrinkled portion is the cerebral cortex , and the rest of the structure is beneath that outer covering.

Nervous system

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The nervous system is a complex network of nerves and nerve cells neurons that carry signals or messages to and from the brain and spinal cord to different parts of the body. It is made up of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system CNS is made up of the brain and spinal cord. The brain controls most body functions, including awareness, movements, sensations, thoughts, speech and memory. The spinal cord is connected to the brain at the brain stem and is covered by the vertebrae of the spine.

Anatomy and physiology of the nervous system

In biology , the nervous system is a highly complex part of an animal that coordinates its actions and sensory information by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body. The nervous system detects environmental changes that impact the body, then works in tandem with the endocrine system to respond to such events. The CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord.

The picture you have in your mind of the nervous system probably includes the brain , the nervous tissue contained within the cranium, and the spinal cord , the extension of nervous tissue within the vertebral column. The brain is contained within the cranial cavity of the skull, and the spinal cord is contained within the vertebral canal of the vertebral column. The peripheral nervous system is so named because it is in the periphery—meaning beyond the brain and spinal cord. In addition to the anatomical divisions listed above, the nervous system can also be divided on the basis of its functions. The nervous system is involved in receiving information about the environment around us sensory functions, sensation and generating responses to that information motor functions, responses and coordinating the two integration. Sensation refers to receiving information about the environment, either what is happening outside ie: heat from the sun or inside the body ie: heat from muscle activity. Voluntary responses are governed by the somatic nervous system and involuntary responses are governed by the autonomic nervous system, which are discussed in the next section.

Nervous System Notes Pdf. The sympathetic nervous system SNS is an integrative system that reacts to dangerous situations, and It was noted some time ago that the SNS and inflammation are close partners. The peripheral nervous system PNS includes all of the parts of the nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. The endocrine system is a collection of organs that secrete hormones substances that travel through the body to distant places, where they tell cells what to do. Some kinds of information, including some reflexes, are processed directly in the spinal cord.


Human Anatomy & Physiology: Nervous System -–Central Nervous System, Ziser​, Lecture Notes, 1. Central Nervous System. Brain & Spinal Cord. Brain.


Nervous System Notes Pdf

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  • The Nervous System. Functions of the Nervous System. 1. Gathers information from both inside and outside the body - Sensory Function. 2. Transmits. Lewis F. - 14.05.2021 at 09:13

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