Ethical principles and theories pdf

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ethical principles and theories pdf

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Ethical Theories

Everything you need to know about business ethics. Business ethics implies general ethical ideas to business behaviour. Ethical behaviour not only improves profitability but also fosters business relations and employees productivity. Business ethics is concerned with the behaviour of businessman in doing a business. Unethical practices create problems to businessman and business units.

What is Business Ethics? History of Business Ethics 3. Meaning 4. Concept and Definitions 5. Characteristics 6. Elements 7. Principles 9. Need Importance Theories Business Ethics and Profits of Business Ethics Determinants Advantages of Managing Ethics in Work Place. Regulations Guidelines Ethical Dilemma Relationship between Business and Ethics Rationale of Business Ethics Ethics and the Indian Corporate Culture The erstwhile-regulated economies necessitated their governments to regulate and control business organisations and economic institutions through law and government mechanisms to enable them to play their role in contributing to the growth and wellbeing of their stakeholders in a balanced way such that the interest of the almost all the people was protected.

Various business management concepts, principles, theories, practices, goals and strategies have been under evaluation, revalidation and constant change consequent upon massive liberalisation, privatisation and globalisation of business initiated towards the end of the 20th Century and geared up in the beginning of the present century.

Many social scientists felt that the deregulation of business would encourage the business to reverse back to its orthodox objective of profit maximization by whatever means including practising unethical conduct. But sooner or the later, a number of incidents around the world proved that businesses should carry out their operations ethically for the sake of basic survival.

The following example is a point in fact. The Company President Mr. The company decided to go ahead without the safety feature. After six months of release, one of the cars was involved in an accident killing all the passengers. Competitors influenced newspapers to publish this accident and the newspapers in the U. This case indicates that business should consider ethical principles while making decisions in order to achieve its basic objective of survival.

Thus, competition forces businesses to conduct their business ethically. Increasing literacy, widespread use of information technology and declining sellers markets after globalisation reduce the scope for debating on the need for conducting business ethically. The issue, now, is to treat ethics as part of human behaviour and part of making individual and collective business decisions. Many business people are religious individuals, but their business suit makes them blind towards human suffering.

Increasingly unethical conduct was found by corporations during the s. To counter this, corporations developed social responsibility programmes which included charitable donations and funding local community projects. Eventually philosophers became involved and brought ethical theory to bear on the relevant ethical issues and hence business ethics became a more institutionalized part of business.

This new aspect of business ethics differentiated it from social issues courses in three ways:. It provides an ethical framework for evaluating business and the corporate world. It allows critical analysis of business and development of new and different methods.

It fused personal and social responsibility together and gave it a theoretical foundation. Ethics is a branch of philosophy concerned with human character and conduct. Ethical standards are referred to as the principles or ideals of human conduct. What is ethical and unethical in general society may not be the same in business as the latter operates in different environments.

It studies the impact of acts on the good of the individual, the firm, the business community and the society as a whole. Business ethics are the norms and moral values of human behaviour desired by the contemporary society exclusively and inclusively dealing with commercial transactions.

These definitions on business ethics are not comprehensive but they provide an idea of what business ethics is. In fact, defining the term business ethics comprehensively is very difficult.

Business ethics means the behaviour of a businessman while conducting a business, by observing morality in his business activities. The behaviour of a businessman has more impact within the business organisation than outside. So, he should obey the laws even though he may personally believe them to be unjust or immoral. If the businessman feels that the provisions of laws are unjust, he can take steps to change the provisions instead of disobeying them.

Such observation of morality is not required out of fear for punishment. He should observe ethics inspired by his own interest in his business and society as a whole. The reason is that there is no distinction between a businessmen and his business. According to Drucker, every individual and organisation in society should abide by certain moral codes and that there is no separate ethics of business.

The nature and concept of Ethics, we can say that Business Ethics is nothing but the application of Ethics in business. Business Ethics proves that businesses can be, and have been, ethical and still make profits. Business Ethics was thought of as being a contradiction of terms. Thankfully, not any more. Today, more and more interest is being given to the application of ethical practices in business dealings and the ethical implications of business.

Human beings have been endowed with the freedom of choice and the means of free will. He can distinguish between good and evil, right and wrong, just and proper. He can distinguish between the end he wishes to pursue and the means to gain that end. Now, what is true for human beings is also true for business, because business are carried on by human beings only, and business organisations are nothing but formal structures for human beings to carry on their businesses.

Moreover, businesses are thought of as being living, growing entities. Thus, businesses also have choices-a choice to maximise their profits and a choice to do good for the society in which they live and operate.

However, at most times, profit maximisation and discharging of social responsibilities at the maximum limit, cannot be carried on simultaneously. One is bound to affect the other. For example, Concern for Task Productivity and Concern for Human Beings workers are bound to pull each other in opposite directions. It is difficult, if not impossible, to maximise both together.

A conflict arises in trying to achieve both simultaneously. Hence, many managerial choices represent Managerial Dilemmas, between the profit consideration commercial concern and the social consideration welfare concern of the organisation. Many managerial decisions have ethical implications and these decisions give rise to Managerial Dilemmas.

For example, ruining occupations of age-old inhabitants in a particular locality and their ethical way of life, by using advanced technology, is an ethical dilemma. Technological advancements have to come, have to be used; however, what to do with the people whose life and earnings are affected by the utilisation of advanced technology, is a question which is difficult to answer.

Recently an award-winning regional language file of India, depicted the plight of an aged boatman whose occupation was to transport people and goods across the local river, as there was no bridge over the river. However, his occupation gets threatened when a bridge is built over the river.

This does not mean that technology advancement must not be utilised or that modern methods should not be welcomed. Certainly, they should. Science and technology should, by all means, be used to uplift and make better the lives of human beings all over the world, and specially in such backward regions as this boatman lived. However, consideration should also be given to see whether alternative means of arrangements can be made so that people are not unduly disturbed or that their trauma and upheaval is kept at a minimum.

In case of the boatman, an ethical and effective solution lies in providing him with alternative employment on the bridge itself-as a security man, toll tax collector, etc. Similarly, when Mergers take place between companies, or Acquisition of one company by a bigger company, where Job positions are duplicated, instead of employees losing their jobs for no fault of their, ethical solutions lies in Job Reassignment or Retraining for alternative Job Assignments.

A business or company is considered to be ethical only if it tries to reach a trade-off between perusing its economic objectives and its social obligations, i. What are the obligations of a business, is open to interpretations. The list of obligations that a company must perform is long and complex and hence, are costly to the company; yet they must be discharged, if a company wants to survive and grow in the long run and is not satisfied in making profits only in the short ran.

While discharging its obligations to the society, the company not only fulfils its own duties, but also paves the way for a stronger and more ethical foundation. Ethics, in short, may refer to the following:. Ethics are principles, values and beliefs that define what is right and wrong behaviour. Ethics are broader than what is stated by law, customs and public opinion. For example, accepting gifts from father-in-law might be socially acceptable but not ethical; owners pocketing profits without sharing the gains with workers might be legally permissible but not ethical.

Ethical behaviour may differ from society to society. For example, birth control is mandatory in Communist societies but not in Catholic Christian societies. Ethical standards are ideals of human conduct.

Business Ethics

As mentioned previously, Rae suggests that ethics are a process that is both an art and a science. There are generally three philosophical approaches, or what may be considered the science, to ethical reasoning:. When people talk about these areas, they are usually discussing an area of ethics known as normative ethics, or the process of considering and determining ethical behavior. While this idea initially may seem appealing, particularly with a field that has a core duty to the public, it does not provide a solid ethical framework for decision-making. There are three main concerns that seem to arise when public relations professionals rely on utilitarian ethics to make decisions. First, rather than looking at the choice or action itself, decision-makers are forced to guess the potential outcomes of their choice in order to determine what is ethical.

British Broadcasting Corporation Home. Ethics are a system of moral principles and a branch of philosophy which defines what is good for individuals and society. At its simplest, ethics is a system of moral principles. They affect how people make decisions and lead their lives. Ethics is concerned with what is good for individuals and society and is also described as moral philosophy. The term is derived from the Greek word ethos which can mean custom, habit, character or disposition. Our concepts of ethics have been derived from religions, philosophies and cultures.

Metaphysics and Morality. Reason and Emotion. Gender and Morality. Some years ago, a couple from Indiana gave birth to a baby with Downs syndrome. Among other complications, the infant, known as Baby Doe, had his stomach disconnected from his throat and was unable to take food or water as normal infants do. Caring for a Downs syndrome infant would have also placed a great emotional and financial burden on the parents.


Request PDF | Ethics Principles and Theories | Clinicians taking care of patients need help unraveling the ethical challenges and conflicts.


Public Health Ethics: Global Cases, Practice, and Context

Ethics is about the values that should be respected by all healthcare workers while interacting with individuals, families and communities. Ethics may sometimes be considered a scary term by some healthcare professionals because it is a word that may bring to mind an accusation of wrongdoing or mistakes, but this is not the case. In this study session you are going to cover the concepts and principles of ethics that are relevant to your work as a Health Extension Practitioner.

Health Management, Ethics and Research Module: 7. Principles of Healthcare Ethics

Everything you need to know about business ethics. Business ethics implies general ethical ideas to business behaviour. Ethical behaviour not only improves profitability but also fosters business relations and employees productivity.

Ethics: a general introduction

Introducing public health ethics poses two special challenges. First, it is a relatively new field that combines public health and practical ethics. Its unfamiliarity requires considerable explanation, yet its scope and emergent qualities make delineation difficult.

Teaching ethics in public health programmes is not routine everywhere — at least not in most schools of public health in the European region. Yet empirical evidence shows that schools of public health are more and more interested in the integration of ethics in their curricula, since public health professionals often have to face difficult ethical decisions. The authors have developed and practiced an approach to how ethics can be taught even in crowded curricula, requiring five to eight hours of teaching and learning contact time. In this way, if programme curricula do not allow more time for ethics, students of public health can at least be sensitised to ethics and ethical argumentation.

Ethics , also called moral philosophy , the discipline concerned with what is morally good and bad and morally right and wrong. The term is also applied to any system or theory of moral values or principles. The term ethics may refer to the philosophical study of the concepts of moral right and wrong and moral good and bad, to any philosophical theory of what is morally right and wrong or morally good and bad, and to any system or code of moral rules, principles, or values. The last may be associated with particular religions , cultures, professions, or virtually any other group that is at least partly characterized by its moral outlook. Ethics also referred to particular philosophical theories of morality. Later the term was applied to particular and narrower moral codes or value systems.

Background

Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch [1] of philosophy that "involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong behavior ". Ethics seeks to resolve questions of human morality by defining concepts such as good and evil , right and wrong , virtue and vice , justice and crime. As a field of intellectual inquiry, moral philosophy also is related to the fields of moral psychology , descriptive ethics , and value theory. Three major areas of study within ethics recognized today are: [2]. Rushworth Kidder states that "standard definitions of ethics have typically included such phrases as 'the science of the ideal human character' or 'the science of moral duty' ". The word ethics in English refers to several things.

The words "moral" and "ethics" and cognates are often used interchangeably. However, it is useful to make the following distinction:. A theory is a structured set of statements used to explain or predict a set of facts or concepts. Seen in this light, it becomes clear that we cannot draw a sharp divide between moral theory and applied ethics e. For instance, in order to critically evaluate the moral issue of affirmative action, we must not attempt to evaluate what actions or policies are right or wrong independent of what we take to determine right and wrong conduct.

Судя по той увлеченности, с которой молодой профессор говорил о преподавательской работе, из университета он не уйдет. Сьюзан решила не заводить деловых разговоров, чтобы не портить настроение ни ему ни. Она снова почувствовала себя школьницей. Это чувство было очень приятно, ничто не должно было его омрачить. И его ничто не омрачало. Их отношения развивались медленно и романтично: встречи украдкой, если позволяли дела, долгие прогулки по университетскому городку, чашечка капуччино у Мерлутти поздно вечером, иногда лекции и концерты.

 Так в чем же проблема, Фил? - спросил Стратмор, открывая холодильник.  - Может, чего-нибудь выпьешь.

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