Electrical energy efficiency technologies and applications pdf
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- 4 NEW ENERGY EFFICIENT TECHNOLOGIES THAT ARE APPLICABLE TO MANUFACTURING PROCESSES
- Efficient energy use
- Energy Efficiency of Medical Devices and Healthcare Applications
- Energy conservation
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Energy conservation is the effort made to reduce the consumption of energy by using less of an energy service. This can be achieved either by using energy more efficiently using less energy for a constant service or by reducing the amount of service used for example, by driving less. Energy conservation is a part of the concept of Eco-sufficiency. Energy conservation measures ECMs in buildings reduce the need for energy services and can result in increased environmental quality, national security , personal financial security and higher savings.
4 NEW ENERGY EFFICIENT TECHNOLOGIES THAT ARE APPLICABLE TO MANUFACTURING PROCESSES
Efficient energy use , sometimes simply called energy efficiency , is the goal to reduce the amount of energy required to provide products and services. For example, insulating a building allows it to use less heating and cooling energy to achieve and maintain a thermal comfort. Installing light-emitting diode bulbs , fluorescent lighting , or natural skylight windows reduces the amount of energy required to attain the same level of illumination compared to using traditional incandescent light bulbs.
Improvements in energy efficiency are generally achieved by adopting a more efficient technology or production process  or by application of commonly accepted methods to reduce energy losses. There are many motivations to improve energy efficiency. Decreasing energy use reduces energy costs and may result in a financial cost saving to consumers if the energy savings offset any additional costs of implementing an energy-efficient technology.
Reducing energy use is also seen as a solution to the problem of minimizing greenhouse gas emissions. According to the International Energy Agency , improved energy efficiency in buildings , industrial processes and transportation could reduce the world's energy needs in by one third, and help control global emissions of greenhouse gases.
Energy efficiency and renewable energy are said to be the twin pillars of sustainable energy policy  and are high priorities in the sustainable energy hierarchy. In many countries energy efficiency is also seen to have a national security benefit because it can be used to reduce the level of energy imports from foreign countries and may slow down the rate of energy at which domestic energy resources are depleted.
Energy efficiency has proved to be a cost-effective strategy for building economies without necessarily increasing energy consumption. For example, the state of California began implementing energy-efficiency measures in the mids, including building code and appliance standards with strict efficiency requirements. During the following years, California's energy consumption has remained approximately flat on a per capita basis while national US consumption doubled.
The US Department of Energy has stated that there is potential for energy saving in the magnitude of 90 Billion kWh by increasing home energy efficiency. Other studies have emphasized this. A report published in by the McKinsey Global Institute , asserted that "there are sufficient economically viable opportunities for energy-productivity improvements that could keep global energy-demand growth at less than 1 percent per annum"—less than half of the 2.
The Vienna Climate Change Talks Report, under the auspices of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change , clearly shows "that energy efficiency can achieve real emission reductions at low cost.
The energy intensity of a country or region, the ratio of energy use to Gross Domestic Product or some other measure of economic output", differs from its energy efficiency.
Energy intensity is affected by climate, economic structure e. From the point of view of an energy consumer, the main motivation of energy efficiency is often simply saving money by lowering the cost of purchasing energy. Additionally, from an energy policy point of view, there has been a long trend in a wider recognition of energy efficiency as the "first fuel", meaning the ability to replace or avoiod the consumption of actual fuels.
In fact, International Energy Agency has calculated that the application of energy efficiency measures in the years has succeeded in avoiding more energy consumption in its member states than is the consumption of any particular fuel, including oil, coal and natural gas. Moreover, it has long been recognized that energy efficiency brings other benefits additional to the reduction of energy consumption. Methods for calculating the monetary value of these multiple benefits have been developed, including e.
Modern appliances, such as, freezers , ovens , stoves , dishwashers , clothes washers and dryers, use significantly less energy than older appliances. Installing a clothesline will significantly reduce one's energy consumption as their dryer will be used less.
Current energy-efficient refrigerators, for example, use 40 percent less energy than conventional models did in Following this, if all households in Europe changed their more than ten-year-old appliances into new ones, 20 billion kWh of electricity would be saved annually, hence reducing CO 2 emissions by almost 18 billion kg.
Many countries identify energy-efficient appliances using energy input labeling. The impact of energy efficiency on peak demand depends on when the appliance is used. For example, an air conditioner uses more energy during the afternoon when it is hot. Therefore, an energy-efficient air conditioner will have a larger impact on peak demand than off-peak demand.
An energy-efficient dishwasher, on the other hand, uses more energy during the late evening when people do their dishes. This appliance may have little to no impact on peak demand. Buildings are an important field for energy efficiency improvements around the world because of their role as a major energy consumer.
However, the question of energy use in buildings is not straightforward as the indoor conditions that can be achieved with energy use vary a lot.
The measures that keep buildings comfortable, lighting, heating, cooling and ventilation, all consume energy. Typically the level of energy efficiency in a building is measured by dividing energy consumed with the floor area of the building which is referred to as specific energy consumption or energy use intensity: .
However, the issue is more complex as building materials have embodied energy in them. On the other hand, energy can be recovered from the materials when the building is dismantled by reusing materials or burning them for energy. Moreover, when the building is used, the indoor conditions can vary resulting in higher and lower quality indoor environments. Finally, overall efficiency is affected by the use of the building: is the building occupied most of the time and are spaces efficiently used — or is the building largely empty?
It has even been suggested that for a more complete accounting of energy efficiency, specific energy consumption should be amended to include these factors: .
Thus a balanced approach to energy efficiency in buildings should be more comprehensive than simply trying to minimize energy consumed. Issues such as quality of indoor environment and efficiency of space use should be factored in. Thus the measures used to improve energy efficiency can take many different forms. Often they include passive measures that inherently reduce the need to use energy, such as better insulation.
Many serve various functions improving the indoor conditions as well as reducing energy use, such as increased use of natural light. A building's location and surroundings play a key role in regulating its temperature and illumination.
For example, trees, landscaping, and hills can provide shade and block wind. In cooler climates, designing northern hemisphere buildings with south facing windows and southern hemisphere buildings with north facing windows increases the amount of sun ultimately heat energy entering the building, minimizing energy use, by maximizing passive solar heating.
Tight building design, including energy-efficient windows, well-sealed doors, and additional thermal insulation of walls, basement slabs, and foundations can reduce heat loss by 25 to 50 percent. They transmit some of this additional heat inside the building. US Studies have shown that lightly colored roofs use 40 percent less energy for cooling than buildings with darker roofs.
White roof systems save more energy in sunnier climates. Advanced electronic heating and cooling systems can moderate energy consumption and improve the comfort of people in the building. Proper placement of windows and skylights as well as the use of architectural features that reflect light into a building can reduce the need for artificial lighting. Increased use of natural and task lighting has been shown by one study to increase productivity in schools and offices.
Newer fluorescent lights produce a natural light, and in most applications they are cost effective, despite their higher initial cost, with payback periods as low as a few months. Effective energy-efficient building design can include the use of low cost passive infra reds to switch-off lighting when areas are unoccupied such as toilets, corridors or even office areas out-of-hours.
Building management systems link all of this together in one centralised computer to control the whole building's lighting and power requirements. In an analysis that integrates a residential bottom-up simulation with an economic multi-sector model, it has been shown that variable heat gains caused by insulation and air-conditioning efficiency can have load-shifting effects that are not uniform on the electricity load.
The study also highlighted the impact of higher household efficiency on the power generation capacity choices that are made by the power sector. The choice of which space heating or cooling technology to use in buildings can have a significant impact on energy use and efficiency. Ground source heat pumps can be even more energy-efficient and cost-effective.
These systems use pumps and compressors to move refrigerant fluid around a thermodynamic cycle in order to "pump" heat against its natural flow from hot to cold, for the purpose of transferring heat into a building from the large thermal reservoir contained within the nearby ground.
The end result is that heat pumps typically use four times less electrical energy to deliver an equivalent amount of heat than a direct electrical heater does. Another advantage of a ground source heat pump is that it can be reversed in summertime and operate to cool the air by transferring heat from the building to the ground.
The disadvantage of ground source heat pumps is their high initial capital cost, but this is typically recouped within five to ten years as a result of lower energy use.
Smart meters are slowly being adopted by the commercial sector to highlight to staff and for internal monitoring purposes the building's energy usage in a dynamic presentable format. The use of power quality analysers can be introduced into an existing building to assess usage, harmonic distortion, peaks, swells and interruptions amongst others to ultimately make the building more energy-efficient.
Often such meters communicate by using wireless sensor networks. Green Building XML is an emerging scheme, a subset of the Building Information Modeling efforts, focused on green building design and operation. It is used as input in several energy simulation engines. But with the development of modern computer technology, a large number of building performance simulation tools are available on the market.
When choosing which simulation tool to use in a project, the user must consider the tool's accuracy and reliability, considering the building information they have at hand, which will serve as input for the tool. They currently offer four levels of certification for existing buildings LEED-EBOM and new construction LEED-NC based on a building's compliance with the following criteria: Sustainable sites , water efficiency , energy and atmosphere, materials and resources, indoor environmental quality, and innovation in design.
The following year, the council collaborated with Honeywell to pull data on energy and water use, as well as indoor air quality from a BAS to automatically update the plaque, providing a near-real-time view of performance. A deep energy retrofit is a whole-building analysis and construction process that uses to achieve much larger energy savings than conventional energy retrofits. A deep energy retrofit typically results in energy savings of 30 percent or more, perhaps spread over several years, and may significantly improve the building value.
Energy retrofits, including deep, and other types undertaken in residential, commercial or industrial locations are generally supported through various forms of financing or incentives. Other rebates are more explicit and transparent to the end user through the use of formal applications. In addition to rebates, which may be offered through government or utility programs, governments sometimes offer tax incentives for energy efficiency projects.
Some entities offer rebate and payment guidance and facilitation services that enable energy end use customers tap into rebate and incentive programs. To evaluate the economic soundness of energy efficiency investments in buildings, cost-effectiveness analysis or CEA can be used. The energy in such a calculation is virtual in the sense that it was never consumed but rather saved due to some energy efficiency investment being made.
Thus CEA allows comparing the price of negawatts with price of energy such as electricity from the grid or the cheapest renewable alternative. The benefit of the CEA approach in energy systems is that it avoids the need to guess future energy prices for the purposes of the calculation, thus removing the major source of uncertainty in the appraisal of energy efficiency investments. The first EU-wide energy efficiency target was set in Member states agreed to improve energy efficiency by 1 percent a year over twelve years.
In addition, legislation about products, industry, transport and buildings has contributed to a general energy efficiency framework.
More effort is needed to address heating and cooling: there is more heat wasted during electricity production in Europe than is required to heat all buildings in the continent.
The Australian national government is actively leading the country in efforts to increase their energy efficiency, mainly through the government's Department of Industry and Science.
This is a ten-year plan accelerating the implementation of a nationwide adoption of energy-efficient practices and a preparation for the country's transformation into a low carbon future.
There are several different areas of energy use addressed within the NSEE. But, the chapter devoted to the approach on energy efficiency that is to be adopted on a national level stresses four points in achieving stated levels of energy efficiency:.
The overriding agreement that governs this strategy is the National Partnership Agreement on Energy Efficiency. This document also explains the role of both the commonwealth and the individual states and territories in the NSEE, as well provides for the creation of benchmarks and measurement devices which will transparently show the nation's progress in relation to the stated goals, and addresses the need for funding of the strategy in order to enable it to move forward.
The Build Smart strategy seeks to dramatically increase the energy-efficiency performance of existing and new Canadian buildings, and establishes five goals to that end:.
Efficient energy use
This book presents basic and advanced concepts for energy harvesting and energy efficiency, as well as related technologies, methods, and their applications. The book provides up-to-date knowledge and discusses the state-of-the-art equipment and methods used for energy harvesting and energy efficiency, combining theory and practical applications. Containing over illustrations and problems and solutions, the book begins with overview chapters on the status quo in this field. Subsequent chapters introduce readers to advanced concepts and methods. In turn, the final part of the book is dedicated to technical strategies, efficient methods and applications in the field of energy efficiency, which also makes it of interest to technicians in industry. Here, readers will find all the basic and advanced concepts they need. As such, it offers a valuable, comprehensive guide for all students and practicing engineers who wishing to learn about and work in these fields.
Energy Efficiency of Medical Devices and Healthcare Applications
In recent years, many technological innovations have enabled the processes in the food and beverage industry to become more efficient, less cumbersome, safer, less energy intensive and more environmentally friendly. Several proven techniques and processes for separation, thermal treatment, bacterial control and energy reclamation are presented in this section. Since the purpose of this guide is to point the reader toward solutions that are applicable in an industrial context, we have chosen to limit ourselves to techniques that are well proven and available on the market.
Energy Efficiency of Medical Devices and Healthcare Facilities provides comprehensive coverage of cutting-edge, interdisciplinary research, and commercial solutions in this field. The authors discuss energy-related challenges, such as energy-efficient design, including renewable energy, of different medical devices from a hardware and mechanical perspectives, as well as energy management solutions and techniques in healthcare networks and facilities. Finally, the book examines technologies and future trends of next generation healthcare from an energy efficiency and management point of view, such as personalized or smart health and the Internet of Medical Things — IoMT, where patients can participate in their own treatment through innovative medical devices and software applications and tools. The books applied approach makes it a useful resource for engineering researchers and practitioners of all levels involved in medical devices development, healthcare systems, and energy management of healthcare facilities.
It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. Editors: Bizon , N. This book presents basic and advanced concepts for energy harvesting and energy efficiency, as well as related technologies, methods, and their applications. The book provides up-to-date knowledge and discusses the state-of-the-art equipment and methods used for energy harvesting and energy efficiency, combining theory and practical applications.
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Efficient energy use , sometimes simply called energy efficiency , is the goal to reduce the amount of energy required to provide products and services. For example, insulating a building allows it to use less heating and cooling energy to achieve and maintain a thermal comfort. Installing light-emitting diode bulbs , fluorescent lighting , or natural skylight windows reduces the amount of energy required to attain the same level of illumination compared to using traditional incandescent light bulbs. Improvements in energy efficiency are generally achieved by adopting a more efficient technology or production process  or by application of commonly accepted methods to reduce energy losses. There are many motivations to improve energy efficiency.